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Psychology Test #2

QuestionAnswer
sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as consequence of constant stimulation
Weber’s Law Two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to be perceived as different
Subliminal Threshold stimuli below one’s absolute threshold
Absolute Threshold minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time, can be influenced by: Vary with experiences Vary with expectations Vary across individuals
Sensation detect physical energy from environment and convert to neural signals
Perception when we select, organize, and interpret our sensations
Bottom-up processing Begins with sense receptors and works up to brain
Top-down processing Information processing guided by experience and expectations
transduction transformation of stimulus energy (sights, sounds, smells) into neural impulses
Physical characteristics of light wavelength(hue,color) intensity (brightness)
wavelength (hue, color) distance from one peak to the next, determines the hue •Short wavelength- high frequency •Long wavelength- low frequency
Intensity (brightness) energy in a wave determined by amplitude (height) •Great amplitude- bright colors, loud sounds •Small amplitude- dull colors, soft sounds
Cornea transparent tissue where light enters
Cones 6 million located in the center of eye low sensitivity in dim light color sensitive detail sensitive
Rods 120 million located in periphery high sensitivity in dim light not color sensitive not detail sensitive
Iris muscle that expands and contracts to change size of pupil
Lens focuses light rays on retina
Retina contains sensory receptors, inner surface of eye, contains rods, cones and bipolar, ganglion cells
Fovea central point on retina, cones cluster around central point on retina
Accommodation lens changes shape to focus objects on retina
Optic Nerve carries neural impulses from eye to brain, connect to thalamus and then connects to visual cortex, nerve cells in visual cortex respond to specific features (edges, angles, and movement)
Blind Spot point where optic nerve leaves eye (no receptor cells)
Bipolar & Ganglion Cells bipolar cells that messages from eye to brain
Parallel processing simultaneously processing several aspects of stimulus
Trichromatic theory young and von Helmholtz suggested that the eye must contain 3 receptors sensitive to red, blue and green
Color blindness blind to green or red
Opponent- process theory red vs. green, yellow vs. blue, and black vs. white
Stimulus input sound waves are compressing and expanding air molecules
Frequency (pitch) determined by wavelength of sound
Intensity (loudness) determined by amplitude
habituation decrease in response with repeated stimulation, infant novelty preferences can be discovered by assessing infants habituation
competent newborn born with reflexes that aid in survival: -rooting reflex helps them locate food -sight range is 8-12 inches away -cries signaling parents to provide nourishment
infancy newborn to toddler
childhood toddler to teen
maturation _______ while experience ___________. sets basic course of development; adjusts it
Motor development sitting (6 mos.) to crawling (8-9 mos.) to walking (12 mos.) to walking independently (15 mos.)
earliest age of conscious memory 3 and a half years
sense of self and increased long term memory 5 years
schema's concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information
cognition all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication; development shaped by errors Their own thinking What others are thinking What others are thinking about them How ideals can be reached
assimilation incorporating new experiences into our current schema
accommodation adjusting a schema and modifying it
Stages of cognitive development sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
sensorimotor stage birth to 1- take in world by looking, touching, mouthing, hearing, and grasping; understand basic laws of physics
preoperational 2 to 6- too young to perform mental operations; egocentric; cannot perceive things form another's point of view; begins forming theory of mind; ability to understand another's mental state
concrete operational 6 to 12- kids grasp conservation problems
formal operational 12 and up- reasoning, ability expands, able to think form concrete to abstract thought
object prominence object still exists when it is out of sight; sensorimotor stage
stranger anxiety fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months
separation anxiety peaks at 13 months regardless of kids at home or sent to day care
attachment emotional connection to others
3 attachment styles -secure -anxious, ambivalent -avoidant
origins of attachment body contact and familiarity
insecure attachment great anxiety when caregiver is removed
deprivation of attachment withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech
prolonged deprivation kids at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in serotonin levels
child rearing practices authoritarian, permissive, authoritative
authoritarian Impose rules and expect obedience
permissive Submit to child’s demand
authoritative Demanding but responsive
authoritative parenting can be due to______ Child’s traits, Harmonious marriage, and Parenting style
adolescence Transition from childhood to adulthood, typically begins at puberty
Physical development Puberty occurs earlier in females (11yrs.) than males (13yrs.)
Primary sexual characteristics reproductive organs and external genitalia
Secondary sexual characteristics the non-reproductive traits, breast and hips in girls, facial hair and deepening of voice in boys
Brain development Until puberty, neurons increase connections. At adolescence, selective pruning of neurons begins. Frontal cortex development lags behind limbic system. Hormonal surges and limbic system may explain teen impulsiveness.
Developing reasoning power adolescents in formal operational judge good from evil, truth and justice
Developing morality 3 levels of moral development by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents; As thinking matures, behavior becomes less selfish and empathizes with others and gratification is delayed
levels of moral development 1.Pre-conventional morality- avoid punishment or gain reward 2.Conventional morality- rules upheld for their own sake 3.Post-conventional morality- agreed-upon rights or basic ethical principles
big questions in adulthood Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Who do I want to be with or date? Will I settle down? Am I satisfied or not?
Psychosocial stages of development Birth 1.Trust vs. mistrust 2.Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3.Initiative vs. guilt 4.Industry vs. inferiority 5.Identity vs. role confusion 6.Intimacy vs. isolation 7.Generativity vs. stagnation 8.Integrity vs. despair Death
Parenting and peer influence although teens become independent, parents can shape religiosity, college and career choices
Emerging adulthood spans 18-25 may live with parents and attend college or work, emerging adults marry in mid-20s Age of identity exploration Age of instability Age of self-focus Age of feeling in-between Age of possibilities
Middle adulthood Peak physical performance occurs around 20; Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output decline; Around 50, women go through menopause
Old age 70 and up, hearing, smell, reaction time, stamina, and strength diminish; After 80, neural processes slow; Motor abilities decline causing accidents; Recalling names becomes difficult; Recognition does not decline; Recalling information will decline
Fluid intelligence ability to reason speedily declines with age
Crystallized intelligence accumulated knowledge and skills does not decline
Classical conditioning learning to associate stimuli with a consequence
Associative learning learning to associate 2 stimuli or learning to associate a response with a consequence
Unconditioned stimulus (US) something naturally and automatically triggering an unlearned response
Unconditioned response (UR) event occurring naturally in response to some stimulus
Neutral stimulus something that does not trigger and response
Conditional stimulus (CS) something that triggers a learned response
Conditional response (CR) event that occurs in response to some conditional stimulus
Spontaneous recovery after rest period, extinguished CR spontaneously recovers
Generalization tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS
Discrimination learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli
Acquisition initial learning stage when neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are associated 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before unconditioned stimulus 2. Time between 2 stimuli should be about ½ second
Operant conditioning association between behaviors and resulting events
Operant behavior behavior operating on environment, producing rewards or punishments
respondent behavior automatic response to stimulus
Law of effect rewarded behavior is likely to occur again
Created by: UniQu3