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Rad Saftey Mod 6

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Entrance skin exposure The simplest and most frequently used method for reporting patient skin dose, usually measured with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD).
mean marrow dose The average radiation dose to the entire active bone marrow.
genetically significant dose (GSD) The dose equivalent to the reproductive organs for the entire gene pool; if received by every human, this dose would be expected to cause gross genetic injury to the total population.
genetic effects The effects of ionizing radiation on future generations.
leukemia Literally, white blood; a neoplastic overproduction of white blood cells.
"elective booking." This requires that the referring physician or radiologist determine the time of the patient's previous menstrual cycle.
At what fetal dose level must a complete dosimetric evaluation be conducted? If the examination involved a fetal dose exceeding 10 mGy (1 rad) or more.
What is the suggested dose level where an abortion could be considered? Evidence suggests a line somewhere between 100 and 250 mGy (10 and 25 rad).
Exposure Factors area examined. The effective atomic numbers and densities of the tissue involved.The IR exposure requirements. The (SID). filtration being used. The balance of radiographic density and contrast required.
C-arm fluoroscopy units Portable multiposition device often used in the operating room for orthopedic procedures; produces real-time (motion) images of a patient.
Beam-limitation devices Device that limits a patient's exposure to unnecessary x-rays by confining the primary beam to the area of clinical interest, thereby limiting the amount of body tissue irradiated.
aperture diaphragms A simple beam limitation device consisting of a flat piece of lead with a hole of a designated size and shape cut through it.
cones A type of beam-limitation device that confines the radiographic beam to a certain area; consists of a circular metal tube that attaches to the x-ray tube housing or collimator to limit the x-ray beam to a predetermined size and shape.
collimators An adjustable devise used to restrict x-ray beam size and shape.
positive beam limitation (PBL) A feature of some collimators that automatically calculates the aperture (based on the distance from the film and the film size) so that the radiation field size matches the film size.
Filtration Elements that are part of, or added to, the x-ray tube to reduce exposure to the patient's skin and superficial tissues.
"added filtration." Filters added outside the glass window of the x-ray tube housing above the collimator shutters.
"inherent filtration" The filtration caused by the glass envelope of the x-ray tube and the insulating oil surrounding the tube. It amounts to approximately 0.5 mm aluminum equivalent.
Wedge filters Specialized filter that compensates for varying thickness densities of an area such as the foot; the thick portion of the wedge is positioned over the toes and the thin portion over the heel.
shields Device used to protect an area, such as the reproductive organs, from ionizing radiation.
flat contact shields Uncontoured protective shield constructed of lead strips or lead-impregnated materials placed over a patient to protect areas of the body that do not need to be examined; available in a number of shapes.
shaped contact shields Protection device made of radiopaque material and contoured to enclose the male reproductive organs.
shadow shields Shield made of radiopaque material that is suspended over the patient to cast a shadow in the primary beam over areas to be protected, such as a patient's gonads.
Lucite-Pb-equivalent shields Shield (often used for breast and gonad shielding) made from a transparent plastic material containing 30% lead by weight; also called "clear-lead" shield.
Created by: elaughery