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Rad Safety Mod 5

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
occupational exposure Radiation exposures occurring in the workplace and in the course of an individual's employment.
late somatic effects Effects such as malignancies that appear months, years, or decades after ionizing radiation has affected somatic cells.
roentgen Traditional unit of measurement for exposure to x-ray and gamma radiation (named after Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, who discovered the x-ray in 1895);or 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg.
rad Traditional unit for radiation absorbed dose; equal to 1 centigray.
rad Rad-equivalent man; traditional unit for dose equivalent (rad multiplied by QF).
Medical exposure Radiation received during medical diagnosis or treatment.
Public exposure Radiation from natural sources; includes all exposures not classified as either medical or occupational.
radon gas A colorless, odorless, chemically inert, heavy radioactive gas; a decay product of uranium.
surface integral exposure A measurement that accounts for both the exposure and the area of the beam falling on the body of the individual who is being exposed.
absorbed dose The amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by the irradiated object; expressed in the SI unit—gray (Gy), or in the traditional unit—rad.
gray (Gy) SI unit for absorbed dose; named for Louis Harold Gray, a British radiobiologist; equal to 100 rads.
dose equivalent (DE) The dose measurement that reflects the type and energy of an ionizing radiation, resulting in a measurement of the effective absorbed dose; expressed as sieverts in SI units or as rems in traditional units.
sievert (Sv) The SI unit for dose equivalent; one sievert equals one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of tissue.
quality factor A modifying factor for a given type of ionizing radiation used to adjust the absorbed dose value in determining the dose equivalent; also known as the radiation weighting factor.
linear energy transfer (LET) Linear energy transfer; the amount of energy transferred on average by incident radiation to an object per unit of length of travel through the object.
tissue weighting factors A value developed by the ICRP and adopted for use in the United States by the NCRP; assigns a relative risk factor for biologic responses associated with irradiation of different body tissues.
effective dose A measurement calculated from the type of radiation to be given and the variability of tissue and organs intended to absorb that radiation.
nonthreshold The assumption that a response to radiation exposure will occur at any dose, as in a nonthreshold dose-response relationship.
stochastic effects Nonthreshold, randomly occurring biologic somatic changes in which the likelihood is proportional to the dose of ionizing radiation.
deterministic effects Biologic somatic effects of ionizing radiation that exhibit a threshold dose below which the effect does not normally occur and above which the severity of the biologic damage increases as the dose increases.
threshold A point at which a biologic response to radiation first occurs, as in a threshold radiation dose-response relationship.
total effective dose equivalent Total effective dose equivalent; a radiation protection term that specifies the maximum allowable total accumulated dose.
ALARA The concept of radiation protection requiring that radiation exposure be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
film badges A personnel monitoring device that uses radiation dosimetry film in a lightweight plastic film holder containing filters of aluminum or copper to measure whole-body radiation accumulated at a low rate over a long time (usually 1 month).
thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) Personnel monitoring device that uses a crystalline form of lithium fluoride as a sensing material to measure radiation, such as measuring the entrance skin exposure to radiation,also known as tissue-equival
optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) Personnel monitoring device that uses aluminum oxide as a sensing material to measure radiation.
Thermoluminescent dosimeters When exposed to x-rays, the lithium fluoride molecules absorb energy and store it in excited electrons in the crystalline lattice. When the lithium fluoride is heated, the electrons, which were excited, return to their former electron shell.
Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) Personnel monitoring device that uses aluminum oxide as a sensing material to measure radiation
gas-filled radiation detectors One of the two primary types of radiation survey instruments; uses a gas-filled chamber to measure radiation; capable of measuring the total quantity of electrical charge produced by the ionized gas or the rate at which the electrical charge is produced.
scintillation detectors A form of detector that is used in a wide array of applications in radiology, including CT scanners, digital imaging, nuclear medicine, and as a survey device.
"cutie pie" The nickname for an ionization chamber type of gas-filled radiation detector; one of the two primary types of gas-filled radiation detectors.
Geiger-Muller (G-M) detector One of the two primary types of gas-filled radiation detectors; detects individual radioactive particles or photons; often used in nuclear medicine facilities.
Proportional counters A type of gas-filled radiation survey instrument used in laboratory settings to detect alpha and beta radiation.
Scintillation detectors work with crystals that emit light when they interact with x-radiation or charged particles. sensitive to radiation intensities as low as a single photon interaction.
Created by: elaughery