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8th grade FCAT VOCAB

rate of change in velocity, usually expressed in meters per second; involves an increase or decrease in speed and/or a change in direction acceleration
force of air on moving objects air resistance
in any periodic function (e.g., a wave) the maximum absolute variation of the function amplitude
the smallest unit of a chemical element that can still retain the properties of that element atom
unit of energy; the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius at standard atmospheric pressure calorie
a physical change that occurs when matter changes its form (i.e., liquid, gas, or solid) change of state
a reaction or a change in a substance that results in producing a different substance, and perhaps produces heat or a gas as well chemical change
an interconnection of electrical elements forming a complete path for the flow of current circuit
a substance made up of a combination of two or more elements held together by chemical bonds that cannot be separated by physical means compound
the process of changing from a gas (i.e., water vapor) to a liquid (i.e., dew); condensation
the transmission of heat through a medium and without the motion of the medium, just by touch conduction
a fundamental principle stating energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to another conservation of energy
heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another convection
the peak or highest point on a wave crest
concentration of matter of an object; number of individuals in the same species that live in a given area; the mass per unit volume of a substance in a given area density
factor being measured or observed (later on) in an experiment dependent variable
the change in direction of a wave caused by passing by an obstacle or traveling through an opening diffraction
the relative effectiveness of a system or device determined by comparing input and output efficiency
the emission and propagation of the entire range of a spectrum including: gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, microwaves, and radio waves electromagnetic radiation
a stable elementary particle that is negatively charged and orbits the nucleus of an atom electron
a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance by chemical means element
a quantity that describes the capacity to do work; a source of usable power energy
a measure of randomness or disorder of a closed system entropy
a change of energy from one form to another (e.g., mechanical to electrical, solar to electrical) energy transfer
the process in which a liquid is converted to its vapor phase by heating the liquid evaporation
a procedure that is carried out and repeated under controlled conditions in order to discover, demonstrate, or test a hypothesis; includes all components of the scientific method experiment
a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body in the direction of its application; a push or a pull force
the number of cycles or waves per unit time frequency
a force that opposes the relative motion of two material surfaces in contact with one another friction
the pivot point of a lever fulcrum
one of the fundamental states of matter in which molecules do not have fixed volume or shape gas
a force of attraction between two masses gravity
a form of energy resulting from the temperature difference between a system and its surroundings heat
factor that is changed early in an experiment (the INput) in order to study changes in the dependent variable independent variable
a type of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier to move a mass from a lower to a higher point inclined plane
the property of an object, due to its mass, that causes it to resist any change in its motion unless overcome by a force inertia
the energy possessed by a body because of its motion kinetic energy
a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion lever
electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range light
one of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but no definite shape liquid
having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials by virtue of a surrounding field of force magnetic
the amount of matter an object contains mass
a solid, liquid, or gas that possesses inertia and is capable of occupying space matter
the product of a thorough blending of two or more substances, not chemically combined mixture
a subatomic particle having zero charge, found in the nucleus of an atom neutron
a reaction; a change in matter from one form to another, without forming new substances physical change
energy stored in an object due to the object’s configuration and position potential energy
the force exerted per unit area pressure
a piece of glass with polished plane surfaces that disperses a beam of white light into its component colors prism
a subatomic particle having a positive charge and which is found in the nucleus of an atom proton
a type of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with a groove where a rope can be placed and used to change the direction of a force pulley
emission of energy in the form of rays or waves radiation
the bouncing off or turning back of light, sound, or heat from a surface reflection
a change in direction (bending) of a wave that occurs as it passes from one medium to another of different density refraction
a plan of inquiry that uses science process skills as a tool to gather, organize, analyze, and communicate information scientific method
a type of simple machine that consist of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder screw
having a definite shape and a definite volume; one of the fundamental states of matter solid
a mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase solution
an instrument that uses a prism to separate and catalog light wavelengths spectroscope
amount of distance traveled divided by time taken; speed
a set of objects, organisms, or different parts acting to form a whole system
internal energy found by adding the kinetic energy of particles making up a substance thermal energy
the lowest point on a wave trough
the event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled in order to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experiment variable
the time-rate at which a body changes position including ITS DIRECTION (N,S,E,W); defined as displacement divided by the time of travel velocity
a repetitive movement around an equilibrium point vibration
a measure of the amount of space an object takes up; volume
the distance of part of a wave from one point to a similar point (ex- crest to crest) wavelength
a type of simple machine that consist of an inclined plane used to separate two objects wedge
a type of simple machine that consists of a rod driven through the center of a cylinder that is allowed to rotate freely, wheel & axle
an individual with 2 of the same alleles for a trait homozygous (purebred)
an individual with 2 different alleles for a trait heterozygous (hybrid)
this type of allele is said to be 'hidden' when paired with a dominant form of the allele recessive
the main important informational part of a gene is composed of this DNA
This a structure within the nucleus that contains many genes chromosome
this is the most primitive type of cell which lacks a nucleus prokaryote
organelle in plant responsible for doing photosynthesis chloroplast
organelle responsible for cellular respiration and producing ATP (the powerhouse) mitochondria
the number of meters in a kilometer 1000
the number of centimeters in a meter 100
the number of millimeters in a centimeter 10
a unit used to measure interstellar distances light year (~6 trillion miles)
the number of light minutes in a light hour 60
this is the subunit that makes up DNA nucleotides
A nucleotide is to a nucleic acid (such as DNA)as an amino acid is to a WHAT? protein
What is the manipulation of individual genes within organisms by scientists called? genetic engineering
What are the charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons called? ions
What word describes the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom ? valence
How many different subunits can be found within a DNA molecule? 4 (A,T,C,G)
The fact that a chemical exhibits the property of 'high solubility' means WHAT? it readily dissolves
Who proposed the DNA model currently nearly universally accepted? Watson, Crick
What term regarding electrons immediately makes one think of COVALENT bonds? share
What is the charge of a chloride ion with 17 protons and 18 electrons? -1
What is the charge of a sodium ion with 11 protons and 10 electrons? +1
Why don’t noble gases normally form chemical bonds? They have full outermost energy levels.
What is the same within each group on the periodic table? number of valence electrons
How are electrons in an atom organized? energy levels
Where are proteins synthsized in the cell? within the cytoplasm, on ribosomes
What base compliments adenine? thymine
What is the compliment to guanine? cytosine
What biochemical is composed of amino acids? protein
What is a change in DNA caused by random error called? mutation
Simple sugars are an example of what type of biochemical? carbohydrate
Which of the following will react with acid to produce hydrogen gas? metal
If a substance is said to be 'alkaline', what does it indicates that substance? It is basic,(pH >7) will taste bitter and will feel slippery to the touch
What is the value that is used to express the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a system? pH
What does the information contained in our nucleic acid (DNA)determine the order of? amino acids in proteins
What is the normal pH of blood? about 7
Which is true of a solution with a pH of 1 ? It is a strong acid
A solution with a pH of 2 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with what pH ? about 3
What type of reaction occurs when one chemical breaks down to several, such as H2CO3 --> H2O + CO2 decomposition
What type of reaction is it when 2 or more chemical substances combine to form one new one? synthesis
What is the number two in the formula for water? a subscript
How does grinding a solid reactant to a powder help to increase a reactin rate? it increases its surface area
What type of reaction needs to have an overall input of energy with the reactants in order for it to occur? endothermic
What type of reaction has energy (heat)being released with the products? exothermic
Nucleotides are made of a sugar, a phosphate, and WHAT ELSE? a base
What is a string of nucleotides that has information for making one trait? a gene
the organelle that is most involved in packaging an transporting chemicals golgi complex
the organelle one may find ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum
the additional outer covering found only in a plant cell cell wall
an object that resists the passage of heat through it thermal insulator
an object that allows heat to be transferred through it thermal conductor
heat transfer by electromagnetic waves from the sun or a lamp radiation
the PHysical appearance, or what you see in a PHoto - such as BLUE eyes or BROWN eyes phenotype
the pairs of letters found inside a punnett square, indicating an individuals alleles for a trait genotype
main organ of gas exchange lung
system of heart, blood vessels and blood that transports substances through body cardiovascular
system of bones that provide structural support for body skeletal
system of lungs, bronchi, trachea, larnyx and nose responsible for gas exchange respiratory
system of glands such as thyroid, pituitary and pancreas which release chemicals into the blood endocrine
system of one way vessels, nodes, spleen and thymus primarily helps fight disease lymphatic
cycle of THIS ELEMENT consists of respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, and combustion carbon
cycle of THIS consists of precipitation, runoff, condensation, evaporation, and transpiration water
cycle of this can consist of melting / cooling, sedimentation, and metamorphasis rock
this is the current accepted theory which explains the formation of the universe big bang
this is thought to be the approximate age of the universe. 15 billion years
this is located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter asteroid belt
this is the term given to species that are NOT native to an area Exotic or Invasive
Dividing an objects' mass by its volume gives you this density
Created by: schneiderw11