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Learning Psych

Chapter 6 vocab and helpful questions

What behaviors are classified as Operant Behaviors: Behaviors that are influenced by their consequences.
What is another name for Operant Conditioning: Instrumental Conditioning.
Who developed the Law Of Effect: Edwin L. Thorndike
what was Thorndike's way of correctly gathering the intellectual ability of animals? Systematic Investigation
What was Thorndike's contraptions called that he put the animals in: A puzzle box.
Define the Law Of Effect: behaviors leading to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "stamped in," while behaviors leading to an unsatisfying or annoying state of affairs are weakened or "stamped out."
What was another name for the Operant Conditioning chamber: the Skinner box
Who developed it: B. F. Skinner
What was Skinner's original belief about how behavior can be analyzed. He believed that all behavior could be analyzed in terms of reflexes.
What were the two categories that Skinner often referred to: Respondent behavior and Operant behavior.
Define Respondent Behavior: Consists of involuntar, reflexive-type behaviors, that can often be classically conditioned to occur in new situations.
Define Operant Behavior: pg 218 Is a class of emitted responses that result in certain consequences; in turn, affect the future probability or strength of those responses.
Define Operant Conditioning: p 217 type of learning in which the future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences.
What is another word for an Operant response: Operants
what is said about the difference between operant and classically conditioned behaviors: pg 219 Classically conditioned bxs are said to be ELICITED by STIMULI. Where as in Operant, bxs are EMITTED by the ORGANISM.
Does a reinforcer increase or decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again: Increases
Does a Punisher increase or decrease the likelihood of a bx occurring again: Decreases
what does the symbol S^R stand for:pg 220 Reinforcing Stimulus
what does the symbol S^P stand for: Punishing stimulus
what does the letter "R" stand for: Operant response
what is the difference btwn Reinforcer/Punisher, and Reinforcement/Punishment: pg220 Reinforcer/Punisher refer to the specific CONSEQUENCES used to strengthen or weaken a bx. Reinforcement/Punishment refer to the PROCESS or PROCEDURE by which a certain consequence changes.
Define Discriminative simulus:pg 223 is a stimulus in the presence of which responses are reinforced and in the absence of which they are not reinforced.
what is the symbol for Discriminative stimulus: pg 223 S^D
what are discriminative stimuli said to do: "set the occassion"
Describe the Three-Term Stimulus For Punishment:pg 224 Includes the S^D, the operant bx and the S^R/S^P.
Define Discriminative stimulus for Punishment: pg 224 A stimulus that signals a response will be punished.
Define Discriminative stimulus for extinction:225 a stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement.
What is the symbol used for Discriminative stimulus for extinction: 225 S^ Delta sign(triangle)
What is a S^delta able to do?: Act as a conditioned stimulus also
LOOK AT THE GRAPH ON PAGE 226 That means now :)
Two Subtypes of reinforcement/punishment: 227 Positive and negative
what are the four basic types of contingencies in operant conditioning: 227 Positive reinforcement/negative reinforcement, positive punisher/negative punisher
What does a positive refer to: ADDing or presenting.
Look at the paragraph in the bottom of page 227
Positive Reinforcement: Presentation of a stimulus(one that is usually considered pleasant or rewarding)
Negative reinforcement: the REMOVAl of a stimulus (one that is usually considered unpleasant or aversive)
Escape Bx: results in the termination (stopping) of an aversive stimulus.
Avoidance bx: occurs before the aversive stimulus is presented and therefore prevents its delivery.
Positive Punishment: consists of the presentation of a stimulus (one that is usually considered unpleasant or aversive) following a response, which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of that response.
Negative Punishment: 231 consists of the REMOVAL of a stimulus (one that is usally considered pleasant or rewarding) following a response, which then leads to a DECREASE in the future strength of that response.
Primary reinforcer: 235 an event that is innately reinforcing.
Another word for Primary Reinforcer: Unconditioned Reinforcer
Secondary Reinforcer: 236 and event that is reinforcing because it has been associated with some other reinforer.
Another word for Secondary Reinforcement: Conditioned Reinforcer
Generalized Reinforcer: 237 type of secondary reinforcer that has been associated with several other reinforcers.
Another name for Generalized Reinforcer: Generalized Secondary reinforcer
Intrinsic Reinforcement: 238 reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the bx.
Extrinsic Reinforcement: the reinforcement provided by some consequence that is external to the behavior.
natural Reinforcers:241 reinforcers that are naturally provided for a certain bx.
Contrived reinforcers: reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify a bx.
Difference btwn Natural and Contrived: 242 Intrinsic: extent to which the bx itself is reinforcing. Extrinsic: extent to which a reinforcer has been artificially imposed so as to manipulate a bx.
Shaping: 243 the gradual creation of new operant bx through reinforcement of successive approx. to that bx.
Created by: kimsingleton23