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Psych t&m chap. 4a&b

Chapter 4 notes.

a test is _______ to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful, and useful. if a test measures what it is supposed to measures, this constitutes as _________. Valid, validity
____________ is determined by the degree to which the questions, tasks, or items on a test are representative of the universe of the behavior the test was designed to sample. content validity
_____ is the extent to which scores on the test are related to some criterion. how strong the co relation is between the score and what its trying to predict. ex: SAT & GPA in college Criterion-related Validity
Cross sectional, which means all at the same time, they test both predictor and criterion variables at the same time Concurrent
Longitudinal, the experimenter first scores the predictor, and then at a later time score the criterion Predictive
Average test takers opinion on whether the test looks like its measuring what is supposed to measuring. Ex: The test taker would be very upset if they were going in to take a psychology test and the test had math questions on it. Face Validity
there is a correlation between test and criterion. there is also a specific way of calculating this correlation. This is called______, and the equation is _____. Validity Coefficient, Rxy
the error to be expected in the predicted criterion score standard error of estimate
the purpose of psychological testing is not the measurement itself, but the decision making from scores that comes from the measurement decision theory
if you predict that someone or something will succeed and it does succeed it is called a _______ correct prediction
predict something or someone will succeed and in fact they fail is called a ______ false positive
predict something or someone will fail and they in fact succeed is called a ______ false negative
when the prediction is correct it is called a ________ hit
when a prediction is incorrect it is called a ________ miss
theoretical, intangible quality or trait in which individuals differ. construct
a test designed to measure a construct must estimate the _______ existence of an underlying characteristic such as leadership ability, based on a limited sample of behavior.
There are two characteristics that all psychological contructs possess The construct cannot be operationally defined. a network of suppositions can be derived from existing theory about the construct.
pertains to psychological tests that claim to measure complex, multifaceted, and theory-bound psychological attributes such as psychopathy, intelligence, leadership ability, and the like construct validity
there is no one test that can measure construct validity
extent to which the scale does in fact correlate with related measures. convergent validity
extent to which the scale does not correlate with unrelated measures (correlation between unrelated measures showed be zero or low. discriminant validity
calls for the assessment of two or more traits by two or more methods. Multitrait-multimethod matrix
systematic experimental design for simultaneous confirmation of convergent and discriminant validity multitriat-multimethod matrix
if a test is internally consistent, and measures a single construct then its items will be homogeneous
as an experimenter you want to select items that form a homogeneous scale
when there is an appropriate change from scores as you grow older this is known as ___________ developmental changes
to show, that on average, persons with different backgrouds and characteristics obtain theory consistent scores on the test. theory consistent group differences
when you show that test scores change in appropriate direction and amount in reaction to planned or unplanned events Theory consistent intervention effects
`specialized statistical technique that is particularly useful for investigating construct validity factor analysis
the purpose of factor analysis is to identify the minimum number of determiners or factors required to account for the inter correlations among a battery of tests.
a correlation between an individual test and a single factor. factor loading
accurate identification of patients who have a syndrome sensitivity
has to do with accurate identification of normal patients. specificity
We want to have _____ correlation in both sensitivity and specificity high
the confirmation that the decision to use a test involves social, legal, and political considerations that extend far beyond the traditional questions of technical validity extra validity concerns
does use of this test result in better patient outcomes, or more efficient delivery of services test utility
test construction consists of ____ stages 6
Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) 1. Measure intelligence from a strong theoretical and research basis 2. Separate acquired factual knowledge from the ability to solve unfamiliar problems 3. Yield scores that translate to educational intervention 4. Include defining the test
where the numbers only serve as category names, or simplified forms of naming nominal scale
this is a form of ordering or ranking. Ordinal scale
Equal sized units or intervals Interval scale
all the characteristics of an intercal scale but also possesses a conceptually meaningful zero point in which there is a total absent ratio scale
the six stages for test construction are : 1. defining the test 2. selecting a scaling method 3. Constructing the item 4. testing the items 5. revising the test 6. publishing the test
if we asked a panel of expert neurologists to list patient behaviors associated with different levels of consciousness. that would be called _______ rankings of experts
procedure for obtaining a measure of absolute item difficulty based on results for different age groups of test takers. method of absolute scaling
presents the examinee with five different responses ordered on an agree/disagree or approve disapprove continuum likert scale
a likert scale is also referred to as a summative scale
the scale in which respondents who endorses one statement also agree with milder statements pertinent to the same underlying continuum basically when you agree with the mostintense statementyou are most likelygoing toagree withthe less seriousstatement Guttman scale
test items are selected for a scale based entirely on how well they contrast a criterion group from a normative sample method of empirical keying
all scale items coorelate positively with each other and also for the total score of the scale, is also known as internal consistency rational scale construction
there are three questions to be asked when constructing the items they are : 1. should item content be homogeneous or varied ? 2. what range of difficulty should the items cover? 3. how many initial items should be constructed?
enumerates the information and cognitive tasks on which examinees are to be assessed. Table of specifications
when the examinee must choose between two equally desirable or undesierable options. forced-choice methodology
useful tool or identifying items that should be altered or discarded Item difficulty index
is a useful tool in the psychometricians quest to identity predicatively useful test items. item-validity index
also known as an item response function, is a graphical display of the relationship between the probability of a correct response and the examinee's position on the underlying trait measured by the test. item characteristic curve
is a statistical index of how efficiently an item discriminates between persons who obtain high and low scores on the entire test item discrimination index
the practice of using the original regression equation in a new sample to determine whether the test predicts the criterion as well as it did in the original sample cross validation
a est predicts the relevant criterion less accurately with the new sample of examinees than with the original tryout sample validity shrinkage
where you can find technical data about a new instrument, can also find information about item aaluses, scale reliabilities, cross-validation studies and so on. Technical manual
gives instructions for administering and also provides guidelines for test interpretation users manual
Created by: kmanso