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Introduction to Psychological approaches

According to Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, What is the second stage where the child’s libido is focused on the anus? Anal Stage
What is the primitive part of the personality structure which contains our instincts and desires? Id
What is the part of the personality structure that deals with external reality and controls the energies of the id? Ego
What is the term, obviously named by Freud, to describe errors which are though to be the result of unconscious thoughts? Freudian Slip
What is the name of the stage (from three to five years old) where Freud argued that a child would focus its sexual energy on its genitals? Phallic stage
Name the term that Freud gave to his idea that, during the phallic stage, the young boy develops an intense sexual love for his mother. Because of this, he sees his father as a rival, and wants to get rid of him. Oedipus complex
Name the theory that emphasises the role of observation and imitation of role models during learning. Social learning theory
Negative or hostile behaviour directed towards others or objects. Aggression
An activity that can be directly observed and measured. Unlike thoughts and feelings which cannot be directly observed and measured. Behaviour
An inflatable doll used in one of Bandura's famous experiments. A three and five foot doll were used. A bobo doll
Which kind of research is it where more than one culture is studied and often involves making comparisons between two cultures? Cross-cultural research
Originally proposed by Freud, these are strategies that are used to protect the ego from an imaginary threat. A few of the more common ones are repression, reaction formation, projection , rationalisation, identification with the aggressor and denial. Defence mechanisms
Your sense of being either male of female. Gender
A unit of inheritance which forms part of a chromosome. Gene
These are twins that develop from the same zygote and are therefore genetically identical. They are often used for twin studies, especially if they have been raised apart. Monozygotic (identical) Twins
This is a long running debate which is interested in whether we are like the way we are because of our inherited genes or our experiences and influences after conception. Nature-nurture debate
This approach was developed from the theories of Sigmund Freud who proposed an account of human mental activity which relied heavily on the notion of an unconscious mind. Psychoanalytic Approach
According to Freud, this is the part of your mind which contains information that is very hard to get at and difficult to bring into our conscious awareness. Unconscious
According to Bandura, what two things will increase the probability that a behaviour or action will be repeated again in a similar circumstance? Rewards and role models
This theory says there are three types of love – intimacy, passion and commitment. Sternberg's Triangular theory of love
2 methods that show what the unconscious mind thinks about. Dreams and freudian slips
According to Freud, these are stages all people go through in the first five years of life and up and focus on sexuality (libido) as main drive. Psychosexual stages
Unconscious part of personality that wants to stick to strict rules. Superego
Part of personality that is in touch with reality that has defence mechanisms to bury memories. Ego
Unconscious part of personality that wants to fulfil desires. Id
What stage, according to Freud, describes where the main source of pleasure is the mouth and is in the first year of life? oral stage
Pleasure comes from defecating from one to three years old. Anal stage
From three to five, the child develops sexual identity. Child notices his/her penis or lack-there-of. Phallic stage
Focus on the genitals and interest in opposite sex occurs throughout adulthood. Genetial stage
Young boy has intense sexual love for his mother and is torn between thinking of father as a rival or identifying with him. Oedipus complex
Young girl has intense sexual love for her father and is torn between thinking of mother as a rival or identifying with her. Electra complex
In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian Parenting
This parenting style establishs rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, it is much more democratic,responsive and willing to listen to questions. These parents are nurturing and forgiving Authoritative Parenting
These parents are generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent. They are nontraditional and lenient and do not require mature behavior, Permissive Parenting
style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life. Uninvolved Parenting
Which parenting style, according to Baumrind, will produce the most healthy adults? • Authoritive parenting styles tend to result in children who are happy, capable and successful
Created by: gayeb