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Music History IV 1

Music History IV test no 1

Richard Strauss Wrote tone poems and opera, wrote "Salmone" (1905); Elektra (1906-8), wrote consonances, dissonances, chromaticism
Claude Debussy Used ideas from medieval music (parallelism), "exotic" musics of asia, and some Russian composers. Artistic/poetic symbolism. Wrote mostly piano music
Maurice Ravel Neo-Classicist, used older traditional forms, diatonic melodies, tonal harmonies with twists
Isaac Albeniz "Iberia", suite for piano, uses dance rhythms and Spanish melodic traits
Manuel de Falla Ballets "El amor brujo" and "El sombrero de tres picos", also borrows melodic, rhythmic devices from Spanish popular song and in spanish settings
Ralph Vaughan Williams English folk music, pupil of Ravel, some modal inflections
Gustav Holst Wrote for band, "The Planets", his Two Suites in Eb and F
Leo Janacek Czech folk songs, dances, choral works, operas,
Jean Sibelius used Stories/mythologies of his homeland, symphonic poems, used "classic genres" such as symphony, mostly tonal
Alexander Scriabin used exotic scales/complex chord combos used as "tonal" referents, used dissonances. "Vers la Flamme, op 72, post tonal
Eric Satie Satirical, avant-garde, odd titles, nonsensical running commentary, modern artistic trends, anti-sentimental, lean,spare textures/harmonies, no interest in music of the past
Jean Cocteau Writer, wrote plays and collaborated with the Les Six
Luigi Russolo Futurist, rejected instruments of the past, "The Art of Noises", music is based on noise, built own instruments
Arnold Schoenberg Atonality and Serialism, wrote treatises to explain his musical choices, Hollywood composer, taught in colleges, rows
Anton Webern Twelve tone style, Schoenberg's student, short works full of technique
Alban Berg tonal atonalist, expressive qualities of late Romatics, used rows which maintained "tonal" relationships
Igor Stravinsky Nationlistic and neoclassicist,"Pulcinella", "Firebird Suite" "Rite of Spring"
Bela Bartok Romania, virtuoso pianist, built musical style around folk music: rhythmic, melodic and modal, blending with classical traditions, end of his career had atonality
Charles Ives American, polytonality- music using mult keys, alternate chord structures, and textural experiments, nationalist, Techniques: collage, experimental sounds, cumulative form, stylistic heterogeneity
Artur Hoenegger Member of Les Six, "Pacific 231", oratorio "king David", Symphony No. 3 "liturgical
Darius Milhaud Influenced by jazz and popular music, "Le Boeuf sur le toit", "la creation du monde", "Saudades do brasil"
Francis Poulenc Surrealist, witty works like Les mamelles de Tiresias and Piano Concerto; later works somewhat more reflective, incl. Mass, Gloria, opera Dialogues of the Carmelites, Organ Concerto
Paul Hindemith Gebrauschmusik, wrote for all ensembles/instruments, "new objectivity", Mathis der Maler
Sergei Prokofiev Ballets and film scores, post WWII wrote symphonies, piano sonatas
Heitor Villa-Lobos Brazilian, mixes Brazilian and modern music, "Choros", "Bachinas Brasileiras"- uses baroque techniques
Edgard Varese Experiments in manipulatino of sound masses; "organized sound"
Henry Cowell tone clusters, manipulation of piano strings, interest in past American and non-Western
George Gershwin song and Broadway composer, "Rhapsody in Blue", jazz, "An American in Paris"
Aaron Copland Music "for use"; film scores, "accessible period" includes "Billy the Kid", "Appalachian Spring"
William Grant Still Wrote "Afro American Symphony", student of Chadwick and Varese, blended African American idioms
Virgil Thomson Music critic for NY Herald-Tribune; pianist, studied in Paris, operas, film scores
Howard Hanson Neo-Romantic, Symphony No. 2 "romantic"
Richard Rogers Broadway/musical composer, had many hits with Hammerstein
Oscar Hammerstein II Lyricist for Broadway
Cole Porter Composed "Kiss me, Kate"
Leonard Bernstein conductor and composer of art music, "West Side Story", "On the Town" with lyricist Stephen Sondheim
Bernard Hermann Wrote film scores, esp for Hitchcock, modernist like Berg and Hindemith and Ives,
Charlie Parker Jazz saxophonist
Dizzy Gillespie Jazz trumpetist
Oliver Messiaen traditional instruments/combos, rhythm oganized around duration not meter, "Quartet for the End of Time", Modes of limited transposition
Benjamin Britten British composer, modern, "War Requiem", "Peter Grimes"
Samuel Barber Neo Romantic, "Adagio for Strings",
Alberto Ginastera Argentinian composer of some nationalist bent
John Cage Avant-garde, non traditional percussion sounds, prepared piano- "Sonatas and Interludes", indeterminancy
Morton Feldman Avant Garde group w/ Cage, "Projection 1" for solo cello, graphic notation of boxes/lines
Milton Babbitt Created 12 tone rows, electronic music,"Philomela"
Karlheinz Stockhausen Electronic composition, total-serialist, "Kreuzspiel",
Pierre Boulez avant-garde of the serialists, electronic music, conducting
Luciano Berio Virtuosic composer, "Sequenza"
Harry Partch Devised own scale and instruments that could play in that scale
George Crumb unusual "instruments" (toy piano), modification of instruments, "Makrokosmos"
Colin McPhee inspired by the music of Indonesia, gamelan
Pierre Schaeffer Worked with everyday sounds recorded and manipulated by electronics, "Symphonie pour un homme seul"
Hugh LeCaine "Dripsody", worked with electronic sounds and manipulated them
Robert Moog Developed commercially viable synthesizers
Krzysztof Penderecki Use of graphic notation and extremes of register to created distinct concept of space and texture with some indeterminancy "Threnody for the victoms of hiroshima"
George Rochberg New use of old music, "Nach Bach" , "Contra mortem et tempus"
Karel Husa Wrote for band, "Music For Prague"
Terry Riley Minimalist, repetition of a few short figures over a repeating C
Steve Reich Spoken-voice tape works, minimalist, using tape loops slightly out of phrase
John Adams Post Miminalist, "Short Ride in a Fast Machine"
Philip Glass "Einstein on the Beach", minimalism, "Qatsi",
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich developing variation to much clearer and more transparent textures, "Symphony No. 1"
Arvo Part tintinnabuli, "Seven Magnificat Antiphons"
Sofia Gubaidulina Russian composer, composed spiritual themes, "Rejoice!",accessible
Alfred Schnittke Postmodernist, film music composer. Wrote polystylism, a combo of new and old styles thru quotation and stylistic allusion. "Concerto Grosso no 1"
Michael Daughtery Wrote "Dead Elvis", pop influenced
Bright Sheng mixed Eastern traditions with Western, "Seven tunes haerd in China", "The Silver River"
Impressionism Monet, Cezanne, etc; Suggestion of figures, background, etc. rather than clear depiction; the view is left to "fill in" the picture
Atonality music that avoids a central pitch or tonal center
Expressionism derived from art, avoids all traditional forms of "beauty" in order to express deep personal feelings thru exaggerated gestures, angular melodies and extreme dissonance
Sprechstimme "Speaking voice", vocal style by Schoenberg in which performer approximates the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech, while following notated rhythm
Serial Composition uses twelve tone method, esp. for music that extends the same general approach to series in parameters other than pitch.
Row an ordering of all 12 pitch classes that is used to generate the musical content
Dodecaphony Another term for 12 tone music
Set collection of pitch classes that preserves its identity when transposed, inverted, or reordered
Neoclassicism Idea that French music is classic in style and character, use of classical forms, genres, tonal
Les Six Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Germaine Tailleferre, Francis Poulenc, Georges Auric. All had similar attitudes
Film Music Music used in the background of films, reflected "classical" trends, uses all styles of music
Socialist Realism a doctrine, which all arts were required to use a realistic approach that portrayed socialism in a positive light. Music was simple, accessible, melodic and patriotic.
DSCH motive used by Shostakovitch. D, Eb, C, B. It spells out his name
Broadway Musicals, usu. a collaboration between Composer and lyricist, centered around Broadway in NYC
Total Serialism use of 12 tone method to musical parameters other than pitch: duration, intensities, timbres
Aleatory Music that some part of it is left to chance, or up to the performer
Electronic Music music created by electronic instruments, or manipulated by electronics
Musique Concrete French, music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds, working "concretely" with the sound itself
Synthesized Music music created by syhtnesizers
Computer Music creating music on a computer.
Minimalism repetition forms, indeterminacy, adaptable with traditional or electronic instruments
Tape Loops 1. segment of magnetic recording tape spliced to form a loop that can run continuously thru a tape recorder and play recorded sounds repeatedly. 2) the continually repeating set of sounds that results
Postminimalism uses minimalism in combination with traditional methods, more varied material, and greater expressivity
tintinnabuli Created by Arvo Part, counterpoint between pitch-centered, mostly stepwise diatonic melody and one or more voices that sound only notes of the tonic triad, with the placement of each note determined by a preset system
postmodernism late 20th c, that blurs boundaries between high and popular art, and in which styles of all epochs and cultures are equally available for creating music
Neo-Romanticism composers adopted tonal idioms of romantic music and incorporated its sounds and gestures
Created by: lpfann
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