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ETSU Psych Test 2

Habituation the process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
sensitization Responding more strongly over time
British Associationism all knowledge is learned by connecting one stimulus with another
serendipity accidental
classical conditioning (Pavlovian or respondent) form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
conditioned stimulus(CS) initially neutral stimulus
unconditioned stimulus(UCS) stimulus that elicits an automatic response
unconditioned response(UCR) automatic response to a non-neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned
conditioned response(CR) response previously associated with a non-neutral stimuls that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning
aversive conditioning classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS
acquisition learning phase during which a CS is established
extinction the CR disappears with the CS is presented without the UCS
spontaneous recovery sudden reemergence of an extinct CR
stimulus generalization when one associates a CS with a similar stimulus
stimulus discrimination determining what is a real CS and what is not
higher-order conditioning developing CR to a CS by its association with another CS
latent inhibition when a CS is experience alone many times, its difficult to classically condition it to another stimulus
fetish sexual attraction to non-living things
pseudoconditioning an apparent CR that is actually an UCR to the CS
law of effect behavior followed by satisfying stimulus increases the bod between stimulus and response
reinforcement outcomes of a behavior that strengthen the probability of the same behavior occurring again
positive reinforcement pleasant stimulus is given (money for good grades)
negative reinforcement unpleasent stimulus is removed (mom stops nagging after clean room)
punishment outcome of a behavior reduces the likelihood that a behavior will occur again
positive punishment unpleasant stimulus is given (spanking)
negative punishment pleasant stimulus is taken away (money taken away for bad grades)
discriminant stimulus (Sd) stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement
partial reinforcement only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, resulting in slower extinction
schedule of reinforcement pattern of reinforcing a behavior
fixed ratio schedule provide reinforcement following regular number of responses
fixed interval provide reinforcement at least once after time has passed
variable ratio schedule number of responses is on average
variable interval schedule time interval is on average
shaping by successive approximations conditioning a target behavior by reinforcement as they come closer and closer to the target
Premack principal reward for doing the mundane or things not liked
token economies trade a token for something nice
secondary reinforcers tokens
primary reinforcers pleasurable item
mirror neurons cells in prefrontal cortex that become active when an animal performs and observes an action
memory The retention of information over time
suggestive memory techniques procedures that strongly encourage patients to recall memories
memory illusion false by subjectively compelling memory
span how much memory a system can hold
duration time it takes to retain information
sensory memory brief storage of perceptual memory before it is passed to short term memory
iconic memory visual sensory memory
short term memory transforms sensory memory into something meaningful for long term memory.retains info for short period
long term memory allows us to retrieve information minutes, days, up to a lifetime of time
retroactive inhibition old memories are harder to remember because of new ones
maintenance rehearsal reciting info in the original form
elaborate rehearsal elaborate on retrieval linking to something else
primacy effect remembering things from the beginning of a list
recency effect remembering things from the end of a list
vonRestorff effect remembering unique things from a list
serial position curve graph of the ability to recall a list
semantic memory our knowledge of facts about the world
episodic memory recollection of events in our lives
explicit memory memories we recall intentionally and are conscious awareness of them
implicit memory memories dont deliberately remember
procedural memory memory for how to do things
priming identifying a stimulus with a similar
encoding process of getting info in database
mnemonic a learning aid that enhances recall
schema mental model stored in memory
recall generating previously remembered info
recognition selection of remembered info from an array of option
relearning relearning
IQ(intelligence quotient) way of measure intelligence and comparing to others
Intelligence test a diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability
abstract thinking the capacity to understand hypothetical concepts
g-general intelligence hypothetical factor that accounts of overall difference in intelligence compared to other people
s-specific abilities specific ability level to do something
fluid intelligence learn new ways to solve problems
crystallized intelligence accumulated knowledge of the world over time
multiple intelligences the idea that there isn't one intelligence, different people are intelligent in different ways
triarchic model model of 3 different types of intelligence: analytical,practical and creative
analytical intelligence the ability to reason logically
practical intelligence the ability to solve real world problems
creative intelligence ability to come up with novel and effective answers
Created by: 1502400036
Popular Psychology sets




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