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Food Science 2

Study for Food science 1001 at Carleton university

What are the 5 major pigments Myoglobin Anthycyanins Betalains Caratenoids Chlorophylls
What pigment is found in muscle tissue of animals Myoglobin
do older animals have more of less myoglobin? more
beef and lamb 7 mg myoglobin/g
pork 2 mg myoglobin/g
what is myoglobin composed of globin and heme
what is heme composed of iron and 4 pyrole units
how many binding sites does iron have 6
what is the main function of myoglobin to bind oxygen
what does over exposure of oxygen to myoglobin produce metmyoglobin
what colour is met myoglobin grey brownish
what is the colour of anthocyanins red purple
are anthocyanins fat soluble no, they are water soluble
what is flavoroid component of anthocyanins called anthocyodin
what makes anthocyanins stable sugar
how is acidity related to the colour of anthocyanins more acidic = more red less acidic = more blue
are betalins water soluble yes
what are the two types of betalains beta cyanins : violet red betxanthans: yellow
Carotenoids are water soluble False, they are fat soluble
True of False, are Chlorophylls fat soluble Yes
What metal is in chlorophylls Magnesium
Anthoxanthis are water soluble True
What colour are Anthoxanthins vary from white to yellow
the combination of what defines flavour tongue and nose, aka smell and taste
Umami is responsible for what flavor Meatiness of avoriness
Astingency is responsible for what flavor? where is it commonly found in Puckering feeling, found in wine and tea
Spiciness or heat sensations is result of what Pungency
The internal production of what results in undesirable cooked flavor Maillard Reaction products
what is Fracturability The force at which a food splits or fractures
What is Hardness The force required to derform the product to given distance
what two chemical forces are involved in texture water presence and fat presence
does Bound water have a low or high Aw value low, hard and crisp
What are the three main functions of texturizing agents? Gelling, increasing Viscosity, Increasing firmness
what is added to produce gelling effects? polysaccharides and or peptides (small proteins)
what is added to increase viscosity polysaccharides
does sucrose reduce amount of water or decrease free water decreases free water, giving lower water activity and drier or firmer product
what are the specific steps of food processing called unit operators
what are the primary unit operators 1. materials handling 2. Seperating 3. Cleaning 4. disintegration 5. Pumping 6. Mixing 7. Heat ex 8. evap 9. Drying 10. Forming 11. packaging 12. non thermal methods
what does material handling involve mainly transportation
what does seperating involve isolation of desirable products, solid from solid of liquid from solid
what is disintegrating reduction in particle size, cutting into smaller peices, grating cheese ect
What is Freeze drying water in solid food is froze under vacuum, then ice turns into vapor in vacuum, vapor is cendensed into ice in seperate chamber
what are the 6 basic principles for food processing preparation 1. Moisture removal 2. heat 3. low t 4. Acidity 5. Traditional nonthermal methods 6. Innovative nonthermal methods
what is moisture removal important microorganisms need water to survive
what are some examples of heat treatment sterilization, pasturization, blanching, canning
what does sterilization require heat at 121 degrees for 15 min, require everything to be 121 degrees
what is pasteurization heat to 70 - 90 degrees, below Bp of water
what is blanching applying heat for short time, boiling veg in water, this inactivates enzymes but does not kill microorganisms
what is canning canned foods are heated to a specific temperature and specific amount of time, dependent on size and structure of food
below what temperature does all water in food turn to ice negative 60 degrees
what are traditional nonthermal methods chemical preservatives used to stop or slow down deterioation
What are the stpes to milk processing Clarification, Fat Adjustment, Fortification, Pasteurization, homogenization, Cooling, Packaging
why is pasteurization done to kill human pathogens
What are the stpes of Cheese processing Curd Formation, Removal of milk serum- salting, blocks wheels, ripening, Packaging
what enzyme is added in curd formation, what does it due enzyme renning is added to denature milk protiens, also lactic acid producing bacteria is added
how is milk serum removed curds are cut heated and pressed
What are the steps to egg processing Chillings, Washing, Candling, Sorting, packaging
what are the eggs chilled resists breakage and reduce growth of salmonella
what defects are checked during the candling process Staleness: presence of large air pocked, and presence of blood embryo or chick development
What 4 foctors affect the quality of meat Rigor mortis, Cold shortening, thaw rigor, Pale Soft Exudative
what is cold shortening, what causes it glycogen in muscles is turn into lactic acid when animal dies, if meat is chilled too quickly glycogen remains and meat remains tough
what is thaw Rigor If meat is frozen with glycogen still present, when thaws glycogen causes muscle to contract and meat becomes tough
PSE Low pH and High T causes muscle to lose water and become pase and lose myoglobin, usually a pork related problem
how is meat fish and poultry preserved use of Chemical additives, Curing, Fermentation, Smoking
what are chemical additives used act as antioxidants, act as antimicrobials and inhibit spoilage and oxidation use of nitrate and salts and Vit C
what is Curing addition of salt, sugar or nitrate to extend shelf life
what is fermentation used as a preservation method fermentation bacteria added to produce acid which inhibits undesirable microorganisms
how is smoking used heat and dry air dries meat and decreases Aw
What are the stpes of oil processing Cleaning, Grinding, Steaming/Cooking, Flaking, Extracting, Seperating, Solvent Removal, Refining, packaging
what is rinding breaking the hull to expose oil
what is flaking pressing of seeds into small flakes to allow for greater oil exposure
what is extraction and why is it done addition of solvent to leave water and solid behind
what two wheat protiens make up gluten Gliadin and Glutenin, protiens link when mixed with liquid
what is the difference between flour and semolina flour is finely group hard or soft wheat, Semolina is coarsely groun hard wheat
what is the Dry pasta process Mixing ( Semolin and water), Extruding ( pressing through die), Cutting, Drying
What three process are done in fruit and vegetable processing timming, Cleaning, Blanching
What is the Frozen mixed vegetable prcoess Peeling/Trimming/Cutting, Washing, Blanching, Precooling, Freezing, Packaging
how does IQF work Individual Quick freeze is the use of the fluidized bed freezer, this forces cold air which suspends cut vegetables and allows for quick even freezing
What is the applie juic process Skinnig and corning, washing, Juice extraction, clarification, filtration, pasterization, packing
what enzyme is used in clarification process, why? pectinase is used to degrade pectin which is responsible for cloudy effect in AJ
what is flitration removal of pulp and other small particles
Created by: alushing