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Radiobiology chpt 36

radiobiology chpt 36

what are late effects of radiation based on low doses delivered over long periods of time
what are radiation protection guidelines based on late effects of radiation
how must epidemiologic studies be conducted to study effects of low dose radiation with millions of people
what effect was was caused by high doses in the early practices of radiology that caused callused, cracked and discolored skin on hands and forearms of radiologists radiodermatitis
what type of stem cells are damaged by radiation lymphatic
how long can effects be delayed in peripheral lymphocytes 20 years
what responses are damage to circulating lymphocytes early or late
low doses of radiation have been proven to cause what? chromosome damage
what can be caused as a late effect of irradiation of blood forming organs leukemia
what is used principally to produce radionuclides for usen in nuclear medicine cyclotron
where are the largest particle accelerators in the world located Argonne Nat'l Laboratory (USA) and CERN (Switzerland)
What type of problem did early cyclotron physicist have and why cataracts due to looking directly into beam and high exposure
where do cataracts occur posterior pole of the eye lens
what type of dose response are cataracts non linear threshold (200 rads)
what type of CT machine is it common to modify exam to reduce eye dose 2D ( not needed for 3D)
What is the life shortening span for every rad 10 days ( worst case)
what is the life shortening span for radiation workers 12 days (worst case)
formula for relative risk observed cases/expected cases
what is the theory of radiation hormesis that very small doses of radiation are good for us (below 10 rads)
What is the only theory we practice ALARA
relative risk factor of 1 indicates what no risk at all
relative risk factor of 1.5 indicates what frequency of late response is 50% higher in the irradiated population
When can absolute risk be calculated when 2 dose levels are known
who/what determines the absolute risk of radiation-induced malignant disease NAS-BEIR
What is the value of absolute risk 5x10^-4rem^-1
what type of responses are all radiation induced malignancy stochastic
what is stochastic no threshold even the smallest dose can cause an effect
how have radiation induced malignancy been observed experimental animals (at human level they have been observed but insufficiet data)
what type of dose respone is leukemia linear and non threshold
what groups have exhibited an elevated incidence of leukemia after radiation exposure atomic bomb survivors, American radiologists, radiotherapy pt, and children irradiated in utero
where have we accumulated the most info for radiation induced leukemia Atomic bomb survivors (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)
How much greater was the leukemia incidences for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors 100 times
what is the latent period for radiation induced leukemia 4 to 7 years
what is the risk period for radiation induced leukemia 20 years
What year was the incidence of leukemia high in radiologist and why 1940; no protection and received doses over 100 rad per year
What were pt with ankylosing spondylitis treated with and what problems did it cause radiation helped pt to walk and function better but it was not known that it caused leukemia
why is it impossible to link cancer to radiation because it occurs in high proportions of the population
what is known to cause thyroid cancer doses of radiation to the thymus as children
what occupation was known to cause bone cancer watch dial painters
what occupation was known to cause lung cancer German miners exposed to radon
Skin cancer has what type of dose response threshold
what caused liver cancer thorotrast used for angiography between 1925 and 1945
how many additional deaths are predicted to occur because of Three Mile Island 2
What is the BEIR Biological effects of Ionizing Radiation
What effect does chronic low doses have on fertility none
what is the most radiosensitive period in pregnancy 1st trimster
what period is of the least concern in pregnancy first 2 weeks ( response is all or nothing)
what is the risk of childhood leukemia after exposure in utero 1.5
Why do we know the genetic effects on humans mice and fruit fly studies
what is doubling dose dose that produces twice the genetic mutations than with non irradiation
what are the abnormalities associated with radiation in utero mental retardation and microcephaly (small head)
cancer is what type of effect of radiation exposure late
what is the risk for skin cancer 4:1
what is the latent period for skin cancer 5 to 10 years
Created by: subee61