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Rads 1110 #1

What 3 things can film badges be affected by? Heat, humidity, and mechanical pressure
Name 3 kinds of field survey instruments? Geiger-muller, Sintilator, and ionization chamber
How far can beta particles travel in the air? 10-100 cm
Somatic effects may be evident in? irradiated individuals
What is a Rad? absorbed dose, grey
Name 2 principle types of particulate radioation that are associated with radioactive decay? Alpha and beta
Describe 3 properties of alpha particles? Large, heavy, slow moving, don't travel far, + charged, increased mass
What is teh radiation weighting factor for x-ray or gamma radiation? one
Which field survey instument only detects the presence of radiation? Geiger-mueller
For x-rays and gamma rays what is the approximate percentage of biological effects on tissues that are the result of indirect actions? 2/3 66.7%
Define a gray? SI unit if a Rad
X-ray interaction with matter involves the transfer of energy from _____ to ______? photon to matter
Name 3 biological effects of ionizing radiation? Cancer, life span shortening, developmental abnormalities
List the factors that influence the effect of exposure to ionizing radiation? Total dose, type of radiation, and cell sensitivity
What does an alpha particle contain? 2 protons, 2 nuetrons
How far can alpha particles travel in air? 5 cm
Scintillators emit what when exposed to ionizng radiation? light
1 rad is = to? 0.01 gray (10 mgray)
The monthly equivalent dose limit for an embryo should not exceed? 0.05 rem
Biological damage from x-rays and gamma rays is the result of what types of interactions? direct or indirect
Name 3 types of personnel monitoring devices? pocket badge, film badge, TLD, OSL
X-ray and gamma rays are what type of radioation? Particulate or elctromagnetic
What are 2 types of ionizing radiation? x-ray and gamma
Define a roentgan? quantity or x-ray (in air)
Indirect interactions of matter with photon energy involves the absorption of radiation within what type of molecule? water
Define effective dose? Sum of weighted equivilent dose for all irradiated tissue or organs
An ionization chamber works on the principle of? radiation interacts with air electrons. Positive ions are produced giving off an electrical charge
Define a dosimeter? measure amount of radiation you recieve
Under what condition should you never wear your personnel monitoring devices? outside of work
Beta particle are identical to _____ differing only in their ______? electrons, origins
What is the annual effective dose limit for an occupational exposure to ionizating radiation? 5 rem
When no threshold dose for radiation exists, it can be called a __________ effect? deterministic
The distance between the indiviual and the source of ionizing radiation should be increased by a factor of ____ to reduce exposure by a factor of 25 5
What does proper collimation do? reduce beam to area of interest and decrease scatter
What rule did advisory agencies recommend to minimize possible exposure to an embryo? 10 day rule
As the speed of an image receptor increases, what happens to patient dose? decreases
what is teh recommended total filtration be the NCRP for x-ray equipment operating above 70 KVP? 2.5 mm
Dose limits are recommended for what 3 things? total body, tissue, and organs
What is the dose limit for a 21 years old who works in radiology? 21 Rem, 10xage=x
The risk of fetal malformations significantly increase at doses above? 15 Rads
What it absorbed by the patient resulting in an increase in patient dose? low energy photons
Can a radiation worker who becomes pregnant be terminated for that reason? NO
How many film badges does a pregnant radiographer wear? 2
The lense of the eye will recieve the greatest does during which exam? AP Skull
The use of of a grid during radiographic procedure results in an ____ in patient dose? increase
When are gonadal shields used? 4-5 cm of primary beam
When is a fetus most radiosensitive? 8-15 weeks
For procedures above 100 kvp, protective aprons must be at least ______ lead equivalent 0.5 rem
List 3 principles that assist in reducing an individual's exposure? time, distance, shielding
Protective aprons and glove are usually made of _______ lead equivalency? 0.25-1.0 cm
What techincal factors are chosen to minimize patient dose? Increase Kvp, decrease mAs
Primary barriers help stop? radioation and low energy photons
List some protective devices? Aprons, gloves, lead, glasses
If the distance between the individual and the source of radiation is doubled, the exposure to that person will be reduced by a factor of___? 4
Secondary barriers help stop what 2 types of radioation? leakage and scatter
What is the annual effective dose limit for a person in the general public for infrequent exposure to ionizing radiation? 0.5 rem, 5 msv
What is the annual effective dose for an occupational exposure to ionizing radiation? 50 msv, 5 rem
What agency is responsible for protecting both the public and occupationally exposed people from radiation effects? NRC
Define dose limit? Radation exposure limit to protection of radiation workers
List 3 deterministic effects of ionizing radiation? cateracts, sterility, adn skin erythema
The size of the x-ray beam should always be restricted to the size of the____? area of interest
According to ALARA concepts, pregnant technologists should be assigned to areas where exposures are likely to be _______? higher
______ Is a nonprofit organization that is charged with collecting, analyzing, developing, adn disseminating info and recommendations about radiation protection. NCRP
Regulatory agency responsible for protecting the public from effects of ionizing radiation. Carry the force of the law and can inspect facilities and issue fines. NRC
________ effects are also known as nonstochastic effects. Determined
Secondary barriers can only be struck by _______and _______ radiation? scatter and leakage
What effect is random in nature adn regardless of dose, some people will experience an effect. As the dose goes up, the chance of experiencing an effect also goes up. Stochastic
Cateracts, skin erythema and sterility are examples of _______ effects? deterministic
What does MPD stands for and what dose limits replace it? Maximal permissable dose, dose equivalent
Different types of radiation such as alpha and beta particles and neutrons, produce different degrees of biological damage as compared to gamma or x-radiation. Equivalent dose
To account for the fact that the same absorbed dose of radiation may result in different biological reponses for different types of radiation, a unit known as the _____ was developed? Rem
The 2 purposes of filtration serves are: absorb decreased energy, reduce patient dose
________ describes the quantity of radioactive material. It is expressed as the # of radioactive atoms that undergo decay. The SI unit for this is ______ which is defined as 1dps. Activity, becquerle
NRC regulations state that the dose equivalent to teh embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant women cannot exceed _____msv, ______rem, ______ mrem 5 msv, 0.5 rem, 500 mrem
Exposure= __________x________ rate x time
Uses a thin strip of aluminum oxide OSL
Uses lithium floride TLD
A laser light is used to stimulate becoming luminsecent OSL
Heatedm absorbed energy released as visible light. TLD
Commonly used for monitoring exposure to extremities TLD
Can undergo complete reanalysis OSL
Primary sources of ionizing radiation nature (alpha, beta) and man-made (x-ray, gamma)
Identify the types of biological effects of ionizing radiation? Direct and indirect
Cellular macromolecules are directly excited Direct
2/3rds of interactions, water first, produces free radicals Indirect
Define GSD genetically significant dose, given the same dose over time, the dose amount will effect children to come
SI unit for the conventional unit of rem sievert
unit of absorbed dose gray
no longer used roentgen
unit of activity becquerel
equal to J/kg gray
exposure to air roentgen
takes into acount the biological effectiveness of radiaion sievert
kinetic energy relased per unit mass of matter kerma
absorbed dose attempt to measure the physical effect due to absorption
Integral dose total amount of energy impaired to matter
Equivalent dose the account that the same dose (absorbed) may result in different biological responses of different types of radiation
Effective dose the dependance of the harmful biological effect on the type of being absorbed
Geiger-Muller survey instrument detect radioation, gas filled detector between 2 electrodes. Produces ion pairs in gas to be collected and measured (beta detection)
Scintillation detection devices convert light to electrical signal. Emit uv light when exposed to ionizing radiation. (visible or uv light)
Ionizing chambers measure primary and secondary radiation beams for measurement of exposure. (electrodes swings along a scale)
Film badge construction 2 pieces of film w/ different sensitivities to x-ray light placed w/i a holder. Filter helps determine different energies
How does a film badge work? when exposed the film darkens in proportion to the degree of radiation exposure recieved
What is a film badge made out of? copper, aluminum, cadmium
What ranges does a film badge measure? 10mrem-2,000 rem
TLS construction small chip of thermoluminescent crystal
How do TLD work? when exposed the poriton of the absorped energy is stored in the crystals of the chip, chips are heated and absorped
What is the TLD chip made of? copper, aluminum, and cadmium
What ranges does teh TLD measure? 0.1- 20
Construction of OSL Aluminium oxide: luminesce amount of radiation can be reanalyse, no effect to humidity and temp.
How do OSL work? meaure the radiation that passes through a thin strip of Al2O3- laser is used
What ranges do OSL measure? 1 mrem
What are the advantages are their to OSL long term and enviromental stability
Describe a pocket dosimeter construction radioation ionizes teh air in the chamber which partially neutralizes
How does pocket dosimeter work? filament measures the daily dose, used when immediate readout is needed, no permanent record is recorded
What are stochastic effects? no threshhold exists (cancer, genertic), random in nature, regardless of dose, some will experience effect
What are nonstochastic effects? Cataracts, skin erythema, and sterility. Threshhold dose is assumed, as dose increases severity increases. Threshold dose
What is the annual effective dose limit for whole body exposure of a radiation worker? 5 rem, 50 msv
What is teh annual effective dose limit for a student in teh radiologic technology program? 1 msv, 0.1 rem
What is teh dose equivalent for the skin, hands and feet of an occupational worker? 50 msv, 5 rem
What is the whole body definition according to the NRC? head, trunk. gonads, arms above the elbow, legs above the knees.
What is the annual effective dose limit for infrequent exposure to the public? 0.5 rem 5 msv
What is the primary protective barrier? perp to beam
What is the secondary protective barrier? parallel to beam (control booth)
Lead aprond and gloves should range between ______to _____ mm of lead equivalency? 0.25 -1.0mm
Protective aprons must have a minimun of ____ mm of lead equivalency if the peak energy of the beam is 100 kvp? 0.5 mm
Will an increase in kvp alone decrease pt dose? no, mA determines the pt. exposure
Name 3 types of basic types of gonad shielding? flat contact, shape contact and shadow
As the speed of the film/screen is _____, patient dose is _______. increase, decreased
Average lead glass window of the shield control boorh is ____ mm Pb equivalent? 1.5
Control booth must be _________ft high? 7 ft
X-ray tubes are to be enclosed by _____ mm thick lead-lines covering? 1.5 mm
Leakage from the x-ray tube housing should not exceed _____ mR/hr at 1 meter? 100
What are controlled areas? center core
What are incontrolled areas? x-ray room, hallway, stair ect...
Created by: 638323941