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UGI/Esophogram

Ch. 14

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 most common projections for an esophogram? RAO, Left Lateral, PA (or AP)
What are the 5 most common projections for an UGI series? RAO, PA, Right Lateral, LPO, AP
When should respiration be suspended for UGI radiographic projections? On expiration
Is most of the duodenum usually found to the left, or the right of the midline on a sthenic patient? To the right of the midline
Which projection taken during an UGI will best demonstrate the retrogastric space? Lateral
What are the 4 radiographic tests that may be performed to detect signs of GERD? Breathing Exercise, Water Test, Compression Technique, Toe Touch
What position is the patient usually places=d in for the water test? Slight LPO
Why should cigarette & gum chewing be restricted before an Upper GI series? Both activities increase the gastric secretions.
Why is the RAO performed over the LAO for an esophogram? It places the esophagus between the vertebral column & the heart.
What materials may be used for swallowing to aid in the diagnosis of radiolucent foreign bodies? Cotton balls soaked in barium, Pills, Marshmallows soaked in barium
which procedure is often performed to detect early signs of GERD? Endoscopy
Where can peptic ulcers be located? Peptic ulcers can be located anywhere in the stomach
Where can duodenal ulcers be located? Duodenal ulcers are located in the duodenal cap
Where can gastric ulcers be located? Gastric ulcers can be located anywhere in the stomach except in the duodenum
What is the radiographioc appearance of ulcers? Lucent-Halo sign appearing during an UGI. May appear as a crater.
What is the radiographic appearance of gastritis? A spreckled appearance of the gastric mucosa. The rugal folds will not appear since the stomach is swollen.
What is the radiographic appearance of a hiatal hernia? a gastric bubble above the diaphragm.
What is the term for a churning or mixing activity present in the small bowel? Rhythmic segmentation
Is the C-Loop of the duodenum & pancreas in the intraperitoneal, or retroperitoneal region? In the retroperitoneal region
Which 3 pairs of salivary glands are accessory organs of digestions associated with the mouth? Parotid, Sublingual, Submaxillary/Submandibular
Absorption of nutrients primarily takes place in the ____________, although some substances are absorbed through the lining of the __________? The SMALL INTESTINE primarily. Some substances are absorbed in the lining of the STOMACH.
What are the 4 parts of the duodenum? 1) Superior portion (contains the duodenal bulb) 2) Descending portion (contains duodenal papilla) 3) Horizontal portion 4) Ascending portion
What is the junction of the Duodenum & Jejunum? What holds it in place? Duodenal-Jejunal Flexure is the juntion. The Ligament of Trietz holds it in place.
Where is the air/gas & Barium distribution when the patient is in the following; supine, prone, erect? Supine: Air is in the body & pylorus. Barium is in the fundus & portion of the body. Prone: Air rises to the posterior fundus. Barium is in the body & the pylorus. Erect: Air is in the fundus. Barium is in the body & pylorus.
What are the 3 main subdivisions of the stomach? The Fundus. The Body. The Pylorus.
What are the 2 parts of the pylorus? Pyloric Antrum & Pyloric Canal
What is the percentage of water, solutes & digestive enzymes in saliva? 99.5% water & 0.5% solutes & digestive enzymes
Name the parts of the alimentary canal Oral cavity (mouth), Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine & Anus
What are the accessory organs of digestion? The salivary glands (Parotid, Submandibular/Submaxillary, Sublingual), Pancreas, Liver, Gallbladder
What substances are directly absorbed by the stomach? Or what substances are ingested, but not digested? Vitamins, Minerals & Water
What are the 3 primary functions of the digestive system? Digestion/Ingestion, Absorption & Elimination
What 2 abdominal organs are most dramatically affected in relation to location, by body habitus? Stomach & Gallbladder
On average, How much will abdominal organs drop in the erect position? 1-2 inches
A high & transverse stomach would be found in which type of body habitus patient? A hypersthenic patient would have a high & transverse stomach
A "J" shaped stomach that is more vertical & lower in the abdomen with the duodenal bulb at the level of L3-L4 would be what body type? Hyposthenic/Asthenic
Which term describes food once it's mixed with gastric secretions in the stomach? Chyme
What is a substance that is not an enzyme, but serves to emulsify fats? Bile
List the end products of digestion for the following classes of food; Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins Carbohydrates-Simple Sugars, Lipids-Fatty Acids, Proteins-Amino Acids
Which of the 3 primary food substances digestion begins in the mouth? Carbohydrates
Any residue of digestive products are eliminated from the ___________ as a feces componenet. Large Intestine
What part of the UGI tract is a common site for ulcer disease? The duodenal bulb
The speed with which barium sulfate passes through the GI tract is called what? Gastric Motility
Which capability on most digital fluoroscopy systems demonstrates dynamic flow of contrast media through the GI tract? CineLoop Capability
Which device in a digital fluoroscopy system converts analog into a digital signal? CCD
Which aspect of the GI tract is best demonstrated with an RAO position during an Upper GI on a sthenic patient? The pylorus & the C-Loop of the duodenum
What is teh purpose of the PA axial prjection for the hypersthenic patient during an Upper GI? To prevent superimposition of the pylorus over the duodenal bulb, as well as to better visualize the greater & lesser curvature
What patient positions constitute the Cadiac Series? What is the cardiac series ordered for? PA, Left Lateral, 45 degrees RAO, 60 degrees LAO. The cardiac series is done to measure the size of the heart.
When would the optional swimmer's lateral projection be performed for the Esophagus? When the proximal Esophagus is the area of interest.
For the AP projection with the patient supine as part of the UGI exam, which procedure could be performed to best demonstrate a hiatal hernia? Tilt the table and patient into full Trendelenburg position
The musculomembranous passage that extends from the pharynx to the stomach is what? The Esophagus
What is the most distal part of the stomach? The Pyloric portion
Created by: jamestkelley