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GI Definitions


Fistula An abnormal passage that leads from an abscess or hollow organ (or body surface) to another hollow organ, that may be created to permit passage of fluids, or secretions.
Sinus Tract A course or pathway which can extend in any direction from the wound base; results in dead space with potential for abscess formation
Ascites Abnormal collection of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity.
Esophagoscope An optional instrument for examing the inside of the esophagus.
Viscosity Resistance of liquid to shear force.
Peritoneum Membrane in the abdominal cavity that ines most viscera.
Omentum A fold of peritoneum that supports the transverse colon to the greater curvature of the stomach.
Volvulus Twisting of a loop of intestine, creating an obstruction.
Bolus A concentrated mass of pharmaceutical prep (contrast).
Hiatal Hernia Portion of the stomach (or distal esophagus) herniates through the diaphragmatic opening.
Valsalva Maneuver Patient takes a deep breath in; while holding their breath, patient is asked to bear down as if moving their bowels.
Esophageal Varices Dilation of the veins in the distal esophagus. Veins become engorged with blood & may bleed. Seen in liver disease, cirrhosis.
Anastomosis A natural, or surgical joining of parts, or tubular structures, so as to make them continuous.
Gastro-Enterostomy Surgical creation of connection between the stomach & jejunum
Colostomy A surgical opening from the colon to the surface of the body
Ileostomy A surgical opening from the ileum to the surface of the body.
Melena Abnormally dark, tarry feces containing blood.
Defecation Elimination of fecal waste through the anus
Anorexia an eating disorder, by starving oneself
Hematemesis Vomiting blood
Diverticulitis Inflammation of diverticula in the GI tract. The diverticula are pouch-like herniations of the mucosal wall.
Diverticulosis Presence of multiple diverticula in walls of the colon.
Colitis Inflammation of the colon
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Intussusception Telescoping of a section of bowel into another loop, creating an obstruction
Megacolon An abnormal enlargement of the colon
Bezoar A mass of undigested material found trapped in the GI system (generally the stomach.
Tracheoesophageal Atresia (TEA) Failure of the esophagus to form a continuous passage from the pharynx to the larynx.
Imperforate Anus A congenital defect of the anus; a partial or complete obstruction of the anal opening
Hirschsprung's Disease A congenital condition in which the colon does not have the normal network of nerves; there is little urge to defecate, so feces accumulate & cause megacolon.
Meconium Thick dark green mucoid material that is the 1st feces of a newborn.
Situs Inversus A congenital condition in which major visceral organs are reversed from normal positions (right to left).
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Enlargement of muscle surrounding the opening of the pyloric sphincter, with narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the small intestine.
Intestinal Atresia Narrowing, or absence of a portion of the small, or large intestine.
Created by: jamestkelley