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Psych 112 - Ch.13

Theories on Personality

personality A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual.
trait A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling.
Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939) Austrian Neurologist who pioneered the field of psychoanalisis.
psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a methood of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflict.
psychodynamic theories theories that explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual.
id In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts.
libido In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id.
ego In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self - control.
super ego In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that respresents conscience, morality, and social standards.
defense mechanisms Methoods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
repression In psychoanalytic theory, the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconsciousness.
projection In psychoanalytic theory, a person's own unacceptable or threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious.
displacement In psychoanalytic theory, when people direct their emotions (especialy anger) toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings.
sublimation In psychoanalytic theory, when displacement serves a higher cultural or socially useful purposem as in the creation of art or inventions.
reaction formation In psychoanalytic theory, when a feeling that produces unconscious anxiety is trandformed into its opposite in consciousness.
regression In psychoanalytic theory, when a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development.
denial In psychoanalytic theory, when people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening, that they have a problem, or that they are feeling a forbidden emotion; denial protects the self - image and preserves the illusion of invulnerability.
psychosexual stages In psychoanalitic theory, a series of different forms of sexual energy into which personality develops as the child matures; they are the oral, anal, phalic, latency, and genital stages.
oedipus complex In psychoanalysis, a conflict occuring in the phallic (oedipal) stage, in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and vies the parent of the same sex as a rival.
Carl Jung (1875 - 1961) Originally one of Freud's collaberators, proposed the idea of the collective unconscious and popneered the school of Jungian analysis.
Collective unconscious In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of human kind, represented in the symbols, stories and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures.
Archetypes Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams, to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious.
Shadow In Jungian thought, archetype that reflects the prehistoris fear of wild animals and represents the bestial, evil side of human nature.
anima In Jungian thought, the feminine archetype in men.
animus In Jungian thought, the masculine archetype in women.
object - relations school A psychodynamic approach that emphasized the impostance of the infant's first tow years of life abd the baby's formitive relationships, especially with the mother.
illusion of causality Assuming that if A came before B, then A must have caused B.
objective tests (inventories) Standardized questionaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves.
Gordon Allport One of the most influential psychologuests in the empirical study of personality.
Central traits Aspects of personality that reflect a characteristic way of behaving dealing with otehrs, and reacting to new situations.
secondary traits Changeable aspects of personality
Raymond Cattell Devised the factor analysis statistical methood for analyzing personality traits.
Factor analysis A statistical method for analuzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures of scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability (factor.)
Big five personality Traits A cluster of five "robust" contral personality traits: extroversion/ introversion, neuroticism/ emotional stability, agreeableness/ antagonism, conscientiousness/ impulsiveness, openness/ resistance to experience.
Temperaments Psychological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they represent in infancy and in many non human species and are assumed to be innate.
Heritability A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
Social - cognitive learning theorists Practitioners who combine elements of behaviourism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
Reciprocal determinism In social cognitive theories, the two way itneraction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits.
nonshared environment Unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members.
culutre A progrram of shared rules that governs the behaviour of members of a community or society and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community.
Individualist cultures Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individuals goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others.
Collective cultures Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual foals and wishes.
culture of honour Culture in which even apparently small disputes and trivial insults threatend the reputation of an individual, family, or group, requiring a violent response to restore tratus.
Created by: ktutty
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