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Intro & Chapter 1-5

Adolescence (age) 10-20 years
Biological: beginning/end of adolescence Onset of puberty/becoming capable of sexual reproduction
Emotional: beginning/end of adolescence beginning of detachment from parents/ attainment of separate sense of identity
Cognitive: beginning/end of adolescence emergence of more advanced reasoning abilities/ consolidation of advanced reasoning abilities
Interpersonal: beginning/end of adolescence Beginning of shift in interest from parental to peer relations
Social: beginning/end of adolescence beginning of training for adult work, family, and citizen roles/ full attainment of adult status and privileges
Educational:beginning/end of adolescence entrance into junior high school/ completion of formal schooling
Legal: beginning/end of adolescence Attainment of juvenile status/ attainment of majority status
Chronological: beginning/end of adolescence attainment of designated age of adolescence (ex. 10 yrs)/ attainment of designated age of adulthood (ex. 21 yrs)
Cultural: beginning/end of adolescence entrance into period of training for ceremonial rite of passage/ completion of ceremonial rite of passage
Early adolescence 10-13 years junior high
Middle Adolescence 14-17 high school
Late Adolescence 18-21 college
Emerging Adulthood 18-25 transition from adolescence to adulthood
Adolescence Framework (John Hill) 1. fundamental changes 2. contexts 3. psychological developments
Fundamental changes of adolescence 1. Puberty (biological) 2. emergence of more advanced thinking abilities (cognitive) 3. transition into new roles in society (social)
Rite of Passage a ceremony or ritual marking an individual's transition from one social status to another, especially marking the young person's transition to adulthood
ecological perspective on human development a perspective on development that emphasizes the broad context in which development occurs. can't understand development w/out examining the context, or settings in which it occurs
Context of adolescence four main contexts in which young people spend time: families, peer groups, schools, and work and leisure settings
micro- systems (ecological) immediate settings in which adolescences live: family & school
meso- systems (ecological) the overlap of two or more immediate settings: family- peer group, home- school
exo-system does not directly contain the person but affects the setting they live in: parent's workplace
macro- system (ecological) context of culture and historical time: country, era in which they live
psychosocial developments things that are psychological and social in nature: identity, autonomy, intimacy, sexuality, and achievement
Biosocial Theory: G. Stanley Hall- theory of recapitulation development of the individual paralleled the development of the human species inevitable (influenced by biological and genetic force, not environment)
sturm and drang(storm and stress) hormonal changes of puberty cause upheaval both for the individual and those around them
organismic theory (biological and contextual): Freud psychosexual conflicts that arise at different points in development
Piaget (organismic) examining changes in the nature of thinking or cognition, mature through stages of cognitive development
behaviorism processes of reinforcement and punishment
B. F. Skinner behaviorist: operant conditioning
social learning theory Bandura
Erikson (organismic) psychosocial ^ internal biological developments move people from one development stage to the next
Puberty 1.rapid acceleration in growth 2.development of primary sex characteristics (gonads, testes, ovaries) 3.2ndary sex charcteristics (body hair, breasts) 4.change in fat and muscle distribution 5.changes in circulatory and respiratory systems
endocrine system system that produces, circulates, and regulates hormones
gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons specialized neurons that are activated by certain pubertal hormones
feedback loop cycle through which 2 or more bodily functions respond to and regulate each other
pituitary gland one of the chief glands responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body
hormones highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands
glands organs that stimulate parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones
HPG (hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal) axis the neurophysiological pathway that involves the hypothalamus -> pituitary gland,-> the gonads-> androgens and estrogens
Puberty Triggers nutritional resources, presence of sexually mature partners, leptin
adrenarche maturation of the adrenal glands during adolescence, leads to physical changes
leptin a protein produced by at cells that may play a role in the onset of puberty increasing levels signal hypothalamus to stop inhibiting puberty (in girls)
epiphysis closing of the ends of the bones, which terminate growth after the adolescent growth period is over
Biological Changes that effect adolescent behavior 1. behavior 2.changes in the adolescent's self-image 3. change the reactions of others
cross-sectional study compares two or more groups of individuals at one point in time
longitudinal study follows the same group of individuals over time
Boys early maturation pros/cons pros: more popular, better self-esteem, more responsible & cooperative/ cons: increase use of drugs, alcohol, increase in promiscuity
Girls early maturation pro/cons popularity with boys/ heavier and shorted stature later in life, anxiety, eating disorders, low self-esteem, promiscuous
Adolescent brain: three themes 1.overproduction followed by competitive elimination (pruning) 2.increased connectivity: faster circuitry, decreased plasticity 3. shift in frontal/limbic balance
obesity most common eating disorder in adolescence
limbic system matures at puberty: seek novelty, reward & stimulate
Changes in cognition 1. thinking about possibilities/ hypothetically 2. thinking about abstract concepts 3.thinking about thinking (metacognitive) 4.thinking in multiple dimensions 5. seeing knowledge as relative (relativism)
deductive reasoning logical reasoning in which one draws logically necessary conclusions from a general set of promises or givens
inductive reasoning reasoning that involves drawing an inference from the evidence that one has
Created by: dfavorw