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Chapter 5

Social Structure and Society

Social Structure The underlying pattern of relationships in a group.
Status A position somebody occupies within a social structure.
Ascribed Status A position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned.
Achieved Status A position that is earned or chosen.
Status Set All of the statuses that a person occupies at any particular time.
Master Status A position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person's life.
Role An expected behavior associated with a particular status.
Right A behavior that individuals can expect from others.
Obligation A behavior that individuals are expected to perform toward others.
Role Performance The actual behavior of an individual in a role.
Social Interaction The process of influencing each other as people relate.
Role Conflict Condition in which the performance of the role in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status.
Role Strain Condition in which the roles of a single status are inconsistent or conflicting.
Society People living within defined territorial borders and sharing a common culture.
Hunting and Gathering Society A society that survives by hunting animals and gathering edible plants.
Horticultural Society A society that survives primarily through the growing of plants.
Pastoral Society A society in which food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals.
Agricultural Society A society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food.
Industrial Society A society that depends on science and technology to produce its basic goods and services.
Mechanization The process of replacing animal and human power with machine power.
Urbanization The shifting of population from farms and villages to large citys.
Gemeinschaft Preindustrial society based on tradition, kinship, and close social tles.
Gesellschaft Industrial society characterized by weak family tles, competition, and impersonal social relationships.
Social Solidarity The degree to which a society is unified.
Mechanical Solidarity A type of social unity achieved by people doing the same type of work and holding similar values.
Organic Solidarity A type of social unity in which members' interdependance is based on specialized functions and statuses.
Postindustrial Society A society in which the economic emphasis is on providing services and information.
Created by: lockwoodk