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Merrills Ch 18

Urinary system

What are the main functions of the kidneys? removing waste from the blood, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, secreting substance that affects blood pressure
What does the urinary system include? 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra
How much urine is excreted in a day from the kidneys? 1 to 2 L
What are the microscopic components of the kidneys called? nephrons
How much can the kidneys drop in in abdominal cavity when going from a lying position to an upright position? 2 in
Where are the kidneys situated in the abdominal cavity? behind the peritoneum or retroperitoneal
Which kidney is longer and narrower? the left
In which body habitus are the kidneys higher in the abdominal cavity? hypersthenic
In which body habitus are the kidneys lower in the abdominal cavity? asthenic
What are the cluster of blood capillaries in the nephron called? glomerlus
Where does the ureters lie in the abdominal cavity? behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas muscles
What serves as a urine reservoir? bladder
How long is the urethra in males? 7-8 inches
How long is the urethra in females? 1 1/2 in
Where do the ureters enter the bladder? posterior wall and lateral margins
What does against the flow stand for? retrograde
When does most of the reaction occur after injecton, if any occurs at all? 5 minutes
What is the study of the bladder called? cystography
Which parts of the urinary system can be visualized by using a retrograde technique? bladder, lower portion of the ureters, and the urethra
What are the names of the folds in the lining of the bladder when empty? rugae
What are the common reaction to the contrast? warm feeling, flushing, sometimes a few hives,
What are some of the significant reaction to the contrast media? nausea, vomiting, edema of the respiratory mucous membrane
What are the bowel preparations that can be used for an IVU? low residue diet 1-2 days before if possible, NPO after midnight, light meal the evening before test, and a non gas forming laxative
What is the procedure call when a contrast media is injected through a vein and images are taken at certain time intervals? Intravenous Urography (IVU)
What must the patient do to prepare for a retrograde exam? drink a large amount of water to ensure there is enough urine for specimens
Who or what needs to be available for an IVU? A radiologist and the crash cart
When should compression for an IVU not be used? Stones, abdominal mass or aneurysm, a colostomy, a suprapubic catheter, or traumatic injury
Where should compression for an IVU be applied? Over the distal ends of the ureters
What is the phase of respiration for an IVU? at the end of expiration
What are the most common contraindications for an IVU? Patient allergic to contrast, patients kidneys unable to filter the contrast
What are the most common radiographs taken during an IVU? AP abdomen
WHat is the time intervals ranges for an IVU? 3-20 minutes
Where is the centering point for exams done on the urinary system? At the iliac crest
If an oblique projection is needed, How many degrees is the patient rotated from the IR? 30 degrees
Is the CR have an angle for any IVU projectons? no
Where is the CR directed for a lateral abdomen IVU image? mid coronal plane
What projection is used to show the uretropelvic junction on an IVU? dorsal decubitus
How is the contrast introduced into the bladder for a cystogram? retrograde(against the flow)
What projects are done during a cystogram? AP, AP oblique, Lateral
What is the degree of rotation for an AP oblique projection in a cystogram for the bladder? 40-6o degrees from the IR
What is the most important image for a male cystourethrogram? AP oblique
What is the centering point for both males and females for a cystourethrogram? superior border of the pubic symphysis
What is the degree of rotation for males and femaled in a cystourethrogramon AP oblique? 35-40 degrees from IR
The concave medial border of the kidney that has a longitudional slitfor the transmission of blood, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and ureters? Hilum
Which position would place the left kidney perpendicular to the IR? AP LPO
Which position would place the rt kidney parallel to the IR? AP LPO
Which procedure of the urinary system is considered an operative exam? retrograde urography
When can a rad tech administer medication? By the order of any physician
How many times can an injection needle be used? once
How are IV medications administered? through the venous system
Before venipuncture, the skin is cleansed in a ___________ motion, and the area should be a __ ____ ___________. Circle, 2 inch circle
Where are the most preferred vessels located for venipuncture? posterior part of hand, anterior part of forearm
How many inches above the injection site should the tourniquet be placed? 6-8 inches
What is the correct angle of the needle held for puncturing a vessel? 45 degrees
After puncture of the vessel, the angle reduces to ______ degrees. 15 degrees
What is the leakage of medication or fluids outside of the vein called? extravasation or infiltration
What is a severe reaction to any medication called? anaphlactic shock
How long do you wait for the antiseptic to cleanse the skin before puncture? 30 seconds
What is the name of the outer covering of the kidney called? renal capsule
Trace the blood flow and urine through the kidneys! enters the afferent arteriole, glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tube,loop of henle,distal convoluted tube, collecting duct, renal papilla, minor calyx,major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter!!!!
Created by: radgirl37