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Theorys Respiratory

Orthopnea Dyspnea present when patient is reclining
Platypnea shortness of breath in the upright position
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND) awakens patient at night
Cough forceful expiratory maneuver that expels mucus and foreign material from the airways
Sputum production mucous produce in the airways
Phlegm from TB tree NOT contaminated by oral secretions
Sputum comes from lungs but passes through mouth
Purulent contains pus (suggests bacterial infection)
Fetid foul smell
Mucoid thick and clear
Frothy pink/white foamy
Hemoptysis coughing up blood or blood-streaked suputum
Normal temperature for adults 96.0 - 99.5 F
Hypothermia causes exposure, increased heat loss, diaphoresis, blood loss, hormone imbalance, hypothalamus injury
Hyperthermia causes increased environmental temp, decreased loss (too many clothes), drug or medication reaction, hormonal imbalance, infection or illness
Normal pulse for an adult 60 - 100 bpm
Causes for bradycardia hypothermia, infection, heart abnormalities, depressant drugs
Causes for tachycardia hypoxemia, fever, emotional stress, heart abnormalities, blood volume loss
Normal respiratory rates in adults 12 - 20
Eupnea normal restful breathing
Hyperpnea deep breathing
Hypopnea shallow breathing
Tachypnea increased respiratory rate
Tachypnea caused by anxiety, exercise, fever, hypoxemia (may indicate respiratory failure)
Bradypnea decreased respiratory rate
Bradypnea caused by narcotics, head injury, hypothermia
Blood pressure measurement of pressure within arterial system
Normal adult blood pressure 90/60 to 140/90
Hypotension causes shock, hormonal imbalance, depressant drugs, positioning, fluid loss
Hypertension causes cardiovascular imbalances, hormonal imbalances, exercise, stimulant drugs, emotional stress, renal failure / fluid retention
Pulse oximetry (spO2) 5th vital sign, measurement of % red blood cells carrying something (usually oxygen)
Normal / Critical Values for spO2 Normal > 95% Critical < = 88% (usually)
Four critical life functions ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, perfusion
Autonomy right to decide own course of treatment, has led to need for informed consent
Veracity Veritas, Latin for truth Problem is benevolent deception (withholding the truth for the patient's own good).
Nonmaleficence 1. Avoiding harm 2. Actively prevent harm
Tort civil wrong other than breach of contract
Tort of Negligence 4-D's Practitioner owes Duty to pt Practitioner was Derelict in duties Breach of duty was Direct cause of damage Damage or harm came to patient
Res ipsa loquitur "the thing speaks for itself"
Respondeat superior "let the master answer"
Boyle's Law P1V1 = P2V2 (temperature & mass constant)
Charles' Law V1/T1 = V2/T2 (pressure & mass constant)
Gay-Lussac's Law P1/T1 = P2/T2 (Volume & Mass Constant)
STPD Standard temperature pressure and dry
ATPS Ambient temperature and pressure saturated
BTPS body temperature and pressure saturated
Critical temperature highest temperature at which a liquid is a liquid-above which the liquid becomes a gas
Critical pressure pressure at the critical temperature that maintains equilibrium between the gas and liquid states
Critical pressure + Critical temperature = ? Critical point
Oxygen characteristics a. colorless, odorless, transparent, tasteless,naturally occurring, not very soluble in water, nonflammable but supports combustion
Production of O2 Electrolysis of water/decomposition of NaCIO3, fractional distillation of air, most common and least expensive, FDA requires purity of at least 99.0%, Physical Separation; oxygen concentrators used in the home; some long term facilities
Characteristics of Air colorless, odorless, naturally occurring mixture consists of 20.95% Oxygen, 78.1% nitrogen, approx 1% trace gases mainly argon, supports combustion
Carbon Dioxide (CO3) characteristics colorless, odorless, 1 1/2 times heavier than air, does not support combustion or maintain animal life, FDA requires 99.0% purity
Helium characteristics odorless,tasteless,nonflammable, second only to hydrogen as lightest gas, chemically and physically inert; cannot support life
Helium combined with 20% oxygen = ? Heliox
Nitrous oxide (N2O) characteristics colorless, slightly sweet odor and taste, can support combustion, cannot support life (always mixed with 20% oxygen)
Nitrous oxide use anesthetic agent
nitric oxide (NO) characteristics colorless, nonflammable, toxic gas, supports combustion, vasodilator
Cylinders are constructed with seamless steel
Cylinders are classified by Department of Transportation
EE indicated on cylinder means Elastic expansion
* on cylinder indicates approval for 10 years
+ on cylinder indicates approved for filling 10% above service pressure
small cylinders (E-AA) valves and connecting mechanisms are post valve & yoke connector
Large cylinders (F,G,H,K) valves and connecting mechanisms are threaded valve outlet
Duration of Flow equation Pressure (psig) X Cylinder factor ___________________________________ Flow (L/Min)
Amount of gas cylinder (Liquid O2) = Liquid O2 weight (lb.) X 860 ______________________________ 2.5 lb/L
NFPA set standards for piping systems
Safety Indexed Connector Systems primary purpose prevents misconnections between equipment and incorrect gas
ASSS American Standard Safety System
PISS Pin-indexed Safety System
DISS Diameter-index safety system
Position of pinholes for Oxygen 2-5
Position of pinholes for Air 1-5
Bourdon Gauge Always used in conjunction with adjustable pressure-reducing valve, it is metering device of choice for transport
Thorpe Tube used in bed-side outlet stations or on cylinders with a reducing valve
Basic Elements of a Practice Act 1.Scope of Professional Practice 2.Requirements and qualifications for licensure 3.Exemptions 4.Grounds for administrative action 5.Creation of examination board and processes 5.Penalties and sanctions for unauthorized practice
Created by: 1599930136