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CP Phys Chap 2 Pt2

Ventilation Pt2

QuestionAnswer
Dynamic The study of forces in action.
Dynamic re: lungs Refers to the movement of gas in and out of the lungs and the pressure changes required to move the gas.
Passive Dilation During normal inspiration in which the < in intrapleural pressure causes the bronchial airways to lengthen & increase in diameter.
Passive Constriction During normal expiration in which the > in intrapleural pressure causes the bronchial airways to shorten & decrease in diameter.
Poiseuille's Law What the tube size does to the flow & pressure.
Poiseuille's Law for v (flow) v = ^Pr4 - Flow = Change in pressure times r to the 4th power.
Poiseuille's Law for P (pressure) P = v/r4 - Pressure = flow divided by r to the 4th power.
If radius > 2x then, v (flow) > 16x and P (pressure) < 1/16
If radius < 1/2 then, v (flow) < 1/16 and P (pressure) > 16x
Time Constants Time that is required to inflate a specific lung region 60% of its filling capacity. Determined by Cl & Raw.
Increase in Raw &/or Cl Increase time to inflate = long time constant
Decrease in Raw &/or Cl Decrease time to inflate = short time constant
Dynamic Compliance How readily a lung region fills with gas during a specific period of time. Measured DURING a period of gas flow. ^V/^Ptp
Positive end-expiration pressure - PEEP When during rapid ventilatory rates, small airways w/high Raw don't have sufficient time to fully deflate during expiration and the pressure in the alveoli distal to these airways still have +pressure when the next inspiration begins.
auto-PEEP Caused by inadequate expiratory time and causes increase in pt WOB. AKA air trapping, intrinsic PEEP, occult PEEP, inadvertent PEEP & covert PEEP.
auto-PEEP & pt FRC increase When FRC increases, pt breaths at a higher, less compliant point on the volume pressure curve, thus causing > WOB.
auto-PEEP & pt diaphragm Air trapping causes diaphragm to push downward, causing > WOB. Pa is higher at beginning inspiration (ie +4 > ambient pressure) causing > WOB.
Ventilatory Pattern Consists of 1) tidal volume, 2)the ventalory rate, and 3) the time relationship between insp. & exh. (pause). 1:2
Tidal Volume The volume of air that normally moves into and out of the lungs in one quiet breath.
Normal Vt 7 - 9 mL/kg 3 - 4 mL/lb 500 mL total average
Ventilatory Rate Normal = 12-20 breaths per minute
Dead space ventilation Amount of gas that DOESN'T reach the alveoli and DOESN'T partake in gas exchange.
Alveolar ventilation Amount of gas that actually DOES reach the alveoli and DOES partake in gas exchange.
Effective Ventilation Va = Vt - Vds; measuring ONE breath only!
Minute alveolar ventilation v(flow)a = Vt - Vds x RR; measuring one MINUTE!
Ventilatory Pattern Consists of 1) tidal volume, 2)the ventalory rate, and 3) the time relationship between insp. & exh. (pause). 1:2
Tidal Volume The volume of air that normally moves into and out of the lungs in one quiet breath.
Normal Vt 7 - 9 mL/kg 3 - 4 mL/lb 500 mL total average
Ventilatory Rate Normal = 12-20 breaths per minute
Dead space ventilation Amount of gas that DOESN'T reach the alveoli and DOESN'T partake in gas exchange.
Alveolar ventilation Amount of gas that actually DOES reach the alveoli and DOES partake in gas exchange.
Effective Ventilation Va = Vt - Vds; measuring ONE breath only!
Minute alveolar ventilation v(flow)a = Vt - Vds x RR; measuring one MINUTE!
Anatomic dead space Amount of air in the conducting airways (upto but not including resp bronchioles). Equals about 1mL/lb IBW. Dilutes oxygen concentration of gas entering lungs.
Physiologic dead space The sum of the anatomic dead space and the alveolar dead space.
An increased depth of breathing, is far more effective than an equivalent increase in breating rate in increasing an individual's total alveolar ventilation.
Increase in tidal volume beyond anatomic dead space, goes entirely toward increasing alveolar ventilation.
Apnea Complete absence of spontaneous ventilation.
Eupnea Normal, spontaneous breathing.
Biot's Short episodes of rapid, uniformly deep inspirations, followed by 10 to 30 seconds of apnea.
Hyperpnea Increased depth (volume) of breathing with or without an increased frequency.
Tachypnea A rapid rate of breathing.
Cheyen-Stokes Ten to 30 seconds of apnea, followed by a gradual increase in volume and frequency of breathing, then a gradual decrease in volume until another period of apnea occurs.
Kussmaul's Both an increased depth (hyperpnea) and rate of breathing. Associated w/diabetic acidosis (ketoacidosis).
Orthopnea A condition in which an individual is able to breath most comfortably only in the upright position.
Dyspnea Difficulty in breathing, of which the individual is aware.
Alveolar Deadspace Alveolus ventilated by not perfused; due to clots, tumors, etc.
Created by: mfredenburg