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chap 3 positioning

boney thorax consists of? sternum, 2 clavicles, 2 scauplae, 12 pairs of ribs and 12 thoracic vertebrae
landmarks used for centering CR on PA and AP chest projections? jugular notch, and vertbra prominens
4 divisions of respiratory system? pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
correct anatomical term for adams apple? thyroid cartilage of larynx.
correct anatomical term for voice box? larynx
correct anatomical term for breastbone? sternum
correct anatomical term for shoulder blade? scapulae.
correct anatomical term for collar bone? clavicle
3 divisions of structures located proximally to the larynx that serve as passageway for both food and air? nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx.
what is the name of the structure that acts as a lid over the larynx? epiglottis.
the trachea is located where in comparison to the esophagus. anteriorly
If a person inhales food particle, which bronchus is it most likely to enter and why? the right bronchus. because the right bronchus is wider, shorter and more vertical.
what is the name of the prominence, or ridge seen when looking down into the bronchus where it divides into the right and left bronchus? and approximately what level is it at? carina, T5 vertebra
what are the small air sacs at distal end of bronchioles called? alveoli.
name of delicate double-walled sac containing the lungs? pleura
name of pleura attached to inner surface of chest wall? parietal pleura
name of pleura attached to surface of lungs? (has 2 diff names) pulmonary or visceral pleura.
potential space between 2 layers of pleura is called? pleural cavity
air or gas that enters the pleural cavity is called what? pneumothorax
what is the name of the lower concave portion of the lung? base
what is the name of the central area in which bronchi and blood vessels enter the lungs? hilum
what is the name of upper rounded portion of lungs above the level of the clavicles? apices
what is the name of the extreme, outermost lower corner of the lungs? costophrenic angles
whish lung is smaller and why? right lung is smaller because of size of liver pushing up on it.
why is the right hemidiaphragm positioned higher than the left? size and location of the live.
4 important structures located in the mediastinum? thymus gland, heart and great vessels, trachea, esophagus.
heart is enclosed in a double walled membrane called? pericardial sac
3 parts of aorta are? ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending aorta.
which type of body habitus is associated with broad and deep thorax? hypersthenic
which body habitus may cause costophrenic angles to be cut off if careful vertical collimation is not used? (more than one type) hyposthenic and asthenic.
what is minimum number of ribs that should be demonstrated above diaphragm on an adult PA chest with full inspiration? 10
true or false: chest radiography is the most commonly repeated radiographic procedure because of poor positioning or exposure factor selection errors? true
true or false: generally you do not need to use radiographic grids for adult patients for PA or lateral chest radiographs? false
adult chest radiographs usually requies how many kv? 110-125kv
with optimal technical factor selection what structures will be properly penetrated on chest x-ray? heart, great vessels, lung regions and hilar regions.
how can optimum density of lungs and medistinal structures be determined on PA chest? should be able to see faint outlines of at least middle and upper vertebrae and ribs through heart and other mediastinal structure.
true or false: Because the heart is always located in left thorax, the use of anatomic side markers on PA projection may not be necessary? false(heart is not always on left side)
which device should be used for erect PA and lateral chest projections for an infant? Pigg-O-stat
what would be the best exposure factors for a chest examination of a young pediatric patient? 60-70kv, and short exposure time.
true or false: because they have shallower (superior-inferior dimension)lung fields, the CR is often centered higher for geriatric patients? true
to ensure better lung inspiration during chest x-rays the exposure should be taken when? second inspiration
4 possible pathologic conditions that might require an inspiration and expiration PA chest? small pneumophorax, presence of foreign body, possible atelectasis, fixation or lack of normal diaphragm movement and distinguishing between opacity in rib or lung.
3 reasons chest x-rays should be taken erect (when patients condition permits)? allows movement of diaphragm, show air/fluid levels, and prevent engorement and hyperemia of pulmonary vessels.
primary purpose and benefit of performing chest x-ray at 72inches? reduce magnification and distortion of heart and other chest structures.
why do lungs tend to expand more with the patient in an erect position? erect position allows abdominal organs to drop allowing diaphragm to move down more and lungs to expand.
what is common radiographic sign seen on chest x-rays for a patient with respiratory distress syndrom (RDS)? air bronchogram
which anatomic structure is examined to determine rotation on PA chest x-ray? symmetric appearance of sternoclavicular joints
which positioning tip will help you prevent the patients chin from being superimposed over the upper airway and apices of the lungs for a PA chest x-ray extend chin upward
what lateral position would you perform for a patient with severe pains in left side of chest? left lateral
what lateral position would you perform for a patient with no chest pain but recent history of pneumonia in right lung? right lateral
what lateral position would you perform for a patient with no chest pain or history of heart trouble? left lateral
why is it important to raise arms over patients head in lateral chest projection? prevents soft tissue of arms from getting in the way of lung fields.
traditional CR centering for chest x-ray places top of IR how many inches above or below shoulders? 2inches (5cm) above shoulders.
what is a reccomended way of centering the CR for a PA chest? use vertebral prominens and measure 8 inches down with hand.
should a 14x17 IR be alligned crosswise or lengthwise for a hypersthenic patient? crosswise
should a 14x17 IR be alligned crosswise or lengthwise for a hyposthenic patient? lenthwise
true or false: with most digital chest units the question or IR placement into either vertical or crosswise positions is eliminated because of the larger IR? True
which bony landmark is palpated for centering of the AP chest position? jugular notch
Created by: bubbzy8