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Apologia Module 8 SG

Apologia Physical Science Module 8 Study Guide

Updraft A current of rising air
Insulator A substance that does not conduct electricity very well
Both the Bergeron process and the collision-coalescence process explain precipitation, but they each begin with a different kind of cloud. With what kind of cloud does each theory begin? The Bergeron process begins with cold clouds, while the collision-coalescence theory begins with warm clouds.
Which of the two theories of precipitation governs the fall of rain from the top of a cumulonimbus cloud? What kind of cloud would be most likely described by the collision-coalescence process? The Bergeron process describes precipitation from the top of cumulonimbus clouds, while the collision-coalescence theory describes precipitation from nimbostratus.
What is the difference between drizzle and rain? Only the size of the raindrop.
What are the differences between sleet, hail, and freezing rain? Sleet is smaller than hail, but both are frozen before they hit the ground. Freezing rain, on the other hand, is liquid until it hits a cold surface
A meteorologist measures the dew point on two mornings. The first morning is very humid and the atmospheric pressure is high. The second morning is not nearly as humid and the atmospheric pressure has fallen. On which day will the dew point be coldest? The dew point will be coolest on the second morning
Name the three stages of a thunderstorm cell in the order they occur. At each stage, indicate whether an updraft, downdraft or both are present. Also, indicate whether or not precipitation occurs. The first stage is the cumulus stage, there is an updraft and no precipitation. The second stage is the mature stage, there are updrafts, downdrafts, and precipitation. The last stage, the dissipation stage has only downdrafts and precipitation.
If the heavy rain of a thunderstorm lasts for more than 30 minutes, what can you conclude about its makeup? The storm is made up of several cells.
Lightning forms as a result of electrical charge imbalance. Where does that charge originate and why does it occur? The charge imbalance first forms in the cumulonimbus cloud, and it is due to water droplets or ice crystals rubbing against each other in glancing collisions.
Which is responsible for most of the light and sound in a lightning bolt: the stepped leader or the return stroke? The return stroke is responsible for the majority of light and sound in a lightning bolt.
Where does the thunder in a thunderstorm come from? Thunder is the result of superheated air traveling out from the lightning bolt in waves.
Why do lightning bolts tend to strike targets that are high? Lightning strikes tall things because the positive charges in the ground tend to pile up in a tall object.
What is the difference between sheet lightning and a lightning bolt? Sheet lightning is cloud-to-cloud lightning, and lightning bolts are cloud-to-ground lightning.
What kind of cloud is necessary for tornado formation? Cumulonimbus
List the five stages of a tornado in order. At which stage in the tornado most destructive? The stages of a tornado are: the whirl stage, the organizing stage, the mature stage, the shrinking stage, and the decaying stage. The mature stage is most destructive.
What are the four classifications that lead to a hurricane? What is used to determine which classification a storm fits in? A hurricane starts out as a tropical disturbance, then becomes a tropical depression, then a tropical storm, and finally a tropical cyclone. The wind speeds in a storm determine in which classification a storm belongs.
What are the conditions in the eye of a hurricane? Within the eye, a hurricane is calm.
What causes a hurricane in the Southern Hemisphere to rotate in a different direction than a hurricane in the Northern Hemisphere? The Coriolis effect
Is the atmospheric pressure in Houston higher, lower, or nearly equivalent to that of Chicago? The atmospheric pressures are nearly equivalent.
Is the atmospheric pressure in Houston higher, lower, or nearly equivalent to that of Atlanta? The atmospheric pressure in Houston is lower.
Is the occluded front nearer to San Fransisco or Canada? San Fransisco
Will Atlanta or Indianapolis be in for some warmer weather soon? Indianapolis will get some warmer weather soon.
At the time this map was drawn, what city drawn on the map might be experiencing thunderstorms? Houston, TX
What city probably experienced long rains followed by thunderstorms recently? San Fransisco, CA