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Rhet. Devices 1A

Organizational/ Structural Devices

Defining Characteristics: a claim and a reason stated in a combined sentence in which an underlying assumption or warrant remains unstated. enthymeme
Function: makes the reader work out for himself/herself the underlying warrant; impresses the conclusion upon him/her in a gentler way than if it was spelled out for him/her directly enthymeme
Do not eat wild mushrooms from the roots of trees because they are poisonous. enthymeme
Defining Characteristics: a short, wise saying that serves as a general truth for a situation sententia, maxim, or aphorism
Functions: concludes, summarizes, or introduces material with simple wisdom sententia, maxim, or aphorism
Example: “No man is an island.” –John Donne sententia, maxim, or aphorism
Defining Characteristics: placing two contrasting ideas or objects next to one another in order to draw attention to differences between ideas/objects and create greater contrast. juxtaposition
Example: Whereas the Beaver’s family enjoyed dessert in dishes at the table, our mom sent us outside, and more often than not I went into the alley to peek over the neighbor’s fences and spy out fruit, apricots or peaches. juxtaposition
Defining Characteristics: a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow metabasis
Functions: summarizes and transitions from one point of discussion to what follows; keeps discussion ordered and clear in its progression metabasis
Example: Now that you are aware of the universal understanding of marriage in a variety of cultures other than simply our own, we will move on to discussing the legal rights afforded to married couples. metabasis
Defining Characteristics: raising one or more question and proceeding to answer it within a text hypophora
Functions: maintains audience’s curiosity and interest; serves as a transitional device to guide change of discussion’s direction; raises questions that the reader likely has on his/her mind but not the knowledge to answer for himself/herself hypophora
Example: What is integrity? Each person may define it differently, but most will likely attribute it to a sense of personal ethics and conduct that exists even when one is not in the presence of others. hypophora
Defining Characteristics: a question asked in which there is an implied answer rhetorical question
Function: emphasizes an idea by forcing the reader to draw a conclusion rather than simply giving it to him;provokes the reader to make a decision based on the facts at hand; may be answered based on the discussion that precedes the question rhetorical question
Example: What is wrong with you? Were you raised in a barn? rhetorical question
Defining Characteristics: anticipating an objection from the opposition or audience and responding it procatalepsis
Function: moves an argument forward while taking into account reasons opposing the argument being made or the conclusions of the argument itself procatalepsis
Example: Opponents frequently argue that year-round school eliminates the summer break, a time that allows for enrichment opportunities not offered in schools. procatalepsis
Defining Characteristics: detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences enumeratio
Function: forcibly makes a point; creates a clearly defined list enumeratio
Example: First, there is no precedent on this matter. Second, logic would dictate to do what is most cost-effective regardless of emotional ties. Third, we must keep up with our competition. (Pointing out central reasons of an argument) enumeratio
Defining Characteristics: an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word distinctio
Function: removes any room for confusion about a word’s meaning distinctio
Example: By “unlikely,” I mean that there is really simply no chance of that happening. distinctio
Defining Characteristics: mentioning a balancing or opposing fact (known as making a concession or conceding to a weakness in one’s own argument) dirimens copulatio
Function: prevents the argument from being one-sided or unqualified dirimens copulatio
Example: The benefits of Advanced Placement classes are far-reaching in terms of preparing students for college more than adequately. However, this is not to say that the courses are easy or that every student should take them. diremens copulatio
Defining Characteristics: placing a good point next to a problem antanagoge
Example: He may have hit me, but he apologized, crying because he felt so bad. antanagoge
Example: It may be ridiculously humid in the summer, but you can’t really tell when you’re at the beach anyway. antanagoge
Defining Characteristics: recalls a statement or part of a statement and expresses it in a different way for effect metanoia
Function: qualifies a statement as stronger, milder, or more diplomatic metanoia
Example: The chief concern of this committee is cheating-- not cheating on quizzes and homework so much as it is on plagiarism. metanoia
Defining Characteristics: expresses doubt about a conclusion and may make suggestions without committing to any specifically aporia
Function: can cast doubt in an understated way, dismiss assertions not central to one’s own argument without having to discuss them in detail; can begin an examination of an issue in order to resolve doubt aporia
Example: I am unsure if there is a solitary solution, but it is clear that we must explore solutions regardless. aporia
Defining Characteristics: interrupts the discussion and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent (or a real, anticipated member or group of the audience) apostrophe
Function: used to vent or display intense emotion or to call specifically for action from an individual or a group apostrophe
Example: It is with great hope, dear sisters, that we may obtain the right to vote through brave and unrelenting campaigning. apostrophe
Created by: nmitchellAPE
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