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categorization

for cognitive psychology

QuestionAnswer
categorization consist of objects or events we group together because we feel they are related
why categorize? reduce complexity, identification of objects, reduce need for constant learning
artificial categories categories that can be distinguished on the basis of a simple rule
natural categories categories that many cannot be distinguished on the basis of a simple rule
does NOT share identical attributes natural categories
hierarchically organized natural categories
organized according to HOW we use them natural categories
not all members equally good members natural categories
fuzzy borders no rigid rule that clearly separates members from nonmembers
three hierarchial organizations of categories superordinate, basic, subordinates
most important level basic level
most differentiated from each other basic level
how is differentation measured? by how much members of same categories share attributes with each other
when is categorization fastest? at the basic level
most typical fruit named orange
most typical vehicle named car
most typical vegetable named peas
when is a member good? when it shares more attributes with other members of the same category
prototypes "center" of the category
exemplar model remember examples from categories
feature model determine pattern by its feastures match feature values of category patterns
prototype model create a pattern that feel is a good representative of category
theory-based model base categories on what our knowledge and experience tell us about the objects
feature frequency rule concerned with matching features instead of similarity
exemplar model nearest neighbor rule
feature model feature frequency rule
prototype model prototype rule
results of reeds experiment - prototype 58%
results of reeds experiment - nearest neighbor 10%
result of reeds experiment - average distance 4%
result of reeds experiment - feature frequency 28%
amount of practice DOES influence which model is used
theory based view grouping results on what our knowledge and experience tell us about objects
personal knowledge and context important in our categorical structures
Created by: wanttopass