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Psych 110 Chapter 2

Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
Nervous System A network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
What is a Neuron? The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within the system
What is a Dendrite? Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons
What is a Axon? tublike structure that carries the neural message to otehr cells
Know the two main divisions of the nervous system Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous system
Afferent (sensory) neurons A neuron the carries information from the senses to the cenral nervous system
efferent (motor) neurons A neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body
Soma contains the nucleus which governs the metabolism of the cell
Know about the resting potential and what creates it the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse. ex. fans can't get into the stadium
How does a action potential work? this involves ion channels opening to allow positively charged ions to enter the axon; know that this process follows an all or none law (if the neuron starts to fire it fires all the way to the end of the axon)
what is a Action Potential? The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
Myelin fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up teh neural impulse.
All or None referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completly or not at all
axon terminals branches at teh end of the axon
synaptic knob rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals.
synaptic vesicles saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals
neurotransmitter chemical found in teh synaptic vesicles that, when realease, has an effect on the next cell
synapse microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of surface of the next cell
receptor sites holes inthe surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
How does the synapse work? Nerve impulses, which are electrical, do not jump across the synaptic gap at synapses. Instead, the arrival of a nerve impulse at the axon terminal triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters from the axon terminal into the synaptic gap.
How a synapse works 2 The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the gap to the membrane of the postsynaptic cell,in effect serving as chemical messengers. There are molecules called receptors that stick off the membrane of the postsynaptic cells.
Synapse 3 In order to have any effect on the postsynaptic cell, a neurotransmitter molecule must fit onto a receptor. precisely,as a key fits into a lock.
Synapse 4 When a neurotransmitter successfully fits ont a receptor, it causes changes in the postsynaptic cell, making it more (or less) likely to fire off a nerve impulse of its own.
Know the connection between endorphins and pain relief Endorphins are pain-controlling chemicals in the body. When a person is hurt, a neurotransmitter that signals pain is released. The brain then triggers the release of endorphins.
Acetylcholine Excitatory or inhibitory; involved inmemory and controls muscle contractions
Serotonin Exitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and inhibits movement.
Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system Transmits information ot and from the central nervous system
somatic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
autonomic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
sympathetic division (fight or flight) part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal.
Parasympathetic division part of teh ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
What is the spinal cord and what does it do? a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes
What are reflexes and why do they happen so suddenly? very fst life saving reflexes. a affrent neuron will send a message to the Spinal column. the interneuron will rcv msg and send out a response as a efferent neuron.
Acetylcholine Excitatory or inhibitory; involved inmemory and controls muscle contractions
Serotonin Exitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and inhibits movement.
Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system Transmits information ot and from the central nervous system
somatic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
autonomic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
sympathetic division (fight or flight) part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal.
Parasympathetic division part of teh ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
What is the spinal cord and what does it do? a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes
What are reflexes and why do they happen so suddenly? very fst life saving reflexes. a affrent neuron will send a message to the Spinal column. the interneuron will rcv msg and send out a response as a efferent neuron.
Corpus callosum linking two hemispheres
Medulla life support
Reticular formation (what happens if it is destroyed) Responsible for selective attention. If destroyed the subject would go into a sleeplike coma and never awake
Thalamus sorting and relay system
Cerebellum balance, grace, motor memories
Hypothalamus regulating hunger, thirst, sex, body temperature
Hippocampus setting down new memories
Amygdala emotion, learned fear responses
Right Hemisphere of the brain Controls the left hand, nonverbal, music and artistic processing, emotional thought and recognition, patttern and facial recognition
Frontal lobe planning, personality, problem solving, motor cortex, Broca's area (know effects of damage to Broca's area)
Temporal lobe primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area (know effects of damage to Wernicke's area)
Parietal lobe somatosensory cortex, spatial neglect (what is this)
Occipital lobe primary visual cortex
Wernicke's aphasia condition resulting from damage to Wernicke's area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaninful language
Broca's aphasia Condition resulting from damage to Broca's area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.
Left Hemisphere of the brain controls the right had, spoken language, writing, mathematical calculations, logical thought process, analysis of detail, and reading
Created by: eccampbe