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Infancy/child mod 8

Physical Cognitive Social Development

QuestionAnswer
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. maturation
a developing body forms nerve cells at a rate of nearly one quarter (1/4) million per minute.
Fiber pathway supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty after a pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others.
all the mental activities associatated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. cognition
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. schema
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas. assimilation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. accomodation
motor development milestones (sit, crawl, walk, run) are__________ the same around the world but may reach them at varying ages.
We consciously recall little from before what age? age 4
our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthdays known as infantile amnesia
Piaget's stages of cognitive development Senorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal operational.
birth to nearly 2 years; object permanence, stranger anxiety; experiencing the world thru senses and actions sensorimotor stage of cognitive development
2 to 6 or 7 years; pretend play, egocentrism; Representing things with words and images using intuitive rather thatn logical reasoning. preoperational stage of cognitive development
about 7 to 11 years; Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations; conservation, mathematical transformations concrete operational stage of cognitive development.
about 12 years thru adulthood; abstract reasoning; abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning Formal operational
conservation the principle ( which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
egocentrism In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
theory of mind people's ideas about their own and other's mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behavior these might predict.
a disorder tht appears in childhod and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' state of mind. autism
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from 6,7 to 11 yrs) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. concrete operational stage
asperger syndrome a "high-functioning" form of autism marked by normal intelligence often accompanied by exceptional skill but defecient in socal and communication skills ( inable to form normal peer relationships)
formal operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display ,beginning by about 8 months of age. stranger anxiety
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. attachment
reared monekeys in the Harlow experiment preferred which mother? the cloth mother
critical period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism exposture to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
imprinting the process by which certain animal form attatchments during a critical period very early in life.
a baby's temperament difficult-irritable,intense, unpredictable easy- cheerful, relaxed, and feeding/sleeping on a schedule.
placed in a strange situation, what percent of infants display secure attachement. 60 percent
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. basic trust
authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience " don't interrupt" Do keep your room clean." "don't stay out late or you will be grounded. Because I sid so!
permissive parents submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
authoratative parents are both demanding and responsive. set rules but are explaining the reasons and allow exceptions to rules.
children with the highest self-esteem, self-relieance, and social competence have which kind of parents? authoratative
Created by: Msmlb_93