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bradleybma 357 final

QuestionAnswer
Interviews On-site versus off-site
Written Tests Civil service
Performance simulation tests Work sampling (e.g., simulate business problems with spread sheets)
Assessment centers Test individuals over several days in order to assess managerial potential
PROBLEMS WITH EVALUATORS Similarity Error Halo Effect Inward Bias Outward Bias Temporal Placement
Similarity Error Subconsciously rating people similar to you more positively.
Halo Effect Let the assessment of one trait dictate the entire assessment.
Inward Bias Tendency to rate all people similarly
Outward Bias Interviewer tends to rate all people either too high or too low.
Temporal Placement Recency: the most recent information during the interview has the most impact. Primacy: the initial information has the most impact.
Negative Information The interviewer tends to place too much weight on negative information as opposed to positive information.
Comparison between Candidates Creates the potential for contrast error, where the interviewer forces interviewees into categories, making artificial contrasts.
Nonverbal Behavior Good eye contact correlates with dependability, assertiveness and confidence Active listeners receive higher overall evaluations during interviews
TYPES OF CANDIDATES Introverts, Buffers and Evaders, and Rambler
Introvert Very difficult to obtain needed information Is NOT a sign of weakness (depending on the position)
Buffers and Evaders Misuse information to try to remain favorable to interviewer (don’t admit to any negative experience) Avoid answering a question
Rambler Feel as though they have to do all the talking
Introvert Response Don’t respond quickly to silence: let 10 to 15 seconds go by to let interviewee collect thoughts Follow with an “it’s o.k” statement Repeat the question
Buffers and Evaders Response Don’t confront the interviewee Use interpersonal skills (e.g., sympathetic tones) to explore deeper in order to get relative information
Rambler Response Use polite interrupt Repeat what the interviewees has said to show active listening Redirect the conversation back to agenda
Theory Z-Japanese Culture Life employment Slow promotion Collective responsibility Consensus decisions Non-specialized career paths
Theory Z-U.S. Culture Short-term career path Rapid promotion Individual responsibility Consensus decisions Specialized career paths
THEORY Z-The best of both worlds Life employment Slow promotion Individual responsibility Consensus decisions Semi-specialized career paths
ORGANIZATION CULTURE The pattern of beliefs and values shared by organizational members
ORGANIZATION CULTURE Characteristics Establishes norms Exhibits philosophies Develops “rules” of the games & values Conveys the feeling & climate of the organization
Benefits of culture 1 Provides direction for performance of managerial roles to desired behavior Develops an internal environment that sets the tone & provides clearer cues for desired behaviors at lower levels
Benefits of culture 2 Allows employees to understand firm’s philosophies Establishes commitment to organizational values May be related to effectiveness and productivity (e.g., Pepsico)
Maintaining Organizational Culture Develop priorities, measures, controls Managers’ reaction to critical incidents (high visibility events) Role modeling, teaching Criteria for receiving rewards Criteria for recruitment, selection, promotion, removal
SOCIALIZATION a systematic process a firm uses to bring a new employee into the organization's culture
Steps to socialization (1-3) 1. Careful selection of new employees. 2. Use of humility-inducing work experiences  causes questioning of prior behavior. 3. Mastery of core discipline (training in the trenches)
Steps to socialization (4-6) 4. Careful measurement of rewards  reinforce desired behavior. 5. Use reinforcing folklore (e.g., “How we do things here”). 6. Use consistent role models.
CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Language Attitudes toward work and achievement Expression of disagreement Punctuality Etiquette Gesures Gift giving Masculinity
Perceptual Differences Based on Culture - Minimal Power Differences Subordinates are not dependent on superiors. Subordinates expect superiors to consult them. Subordinates may strike if superiors overstep legitimate roles. Rules apply to everyone, superiors have no special privileges. Status symbols are discouraged
Perceptual Differences Based on Culture - Moderate Power Differences Subordinates expect superiors to consult them, but will accept autocratic behavior. Rules apply to everyone, but superiors have certain privileges. Moderate status symbols are accepted by employees.
Perceptual Differences Based on Culture - Large Power Differences Subordinates have strong dependence needs Subordinates expect leaders to act autocratically Rules and laws differ for superiors, but everyone expects superiors to enjoy privileges. Status symbols are important and contribute strongly to leader’s author
Culture Shock A state of disorientation and anxiety about knowing how to behave in an unfamiliar culture
Culture Shock Stage 1 The honeymoon stage (May last several weeks)(may last several weeks) Sense of excitement Positive attitudes Feeling of being a tourist
Culture Shock Stage 2 Irritation and hostility stage (May never get past this stage) initial enthusiasm is exhausted start to notice basic cultural differences problems at work, home, daily living feeling of disorientation sense of isolation
Culture Shock Stage 3 Gradual adjustment stage period of recovery begin to understand differences start to use language effectively become involved in daily-living activities
Culture Shock Stage 4 Biculturalism stage internalize differences in cultures appreciate local people and practices many don’t get to this stage but still operate effectively in third stage
SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EXPATRIATES Job Factors Relational Dimensions Motivational State Family Situation Language skills
Job Factors Technical skills Acquaintance with host-country operations Managerial skills
Relational Dimensions Tolerance for ambiguity Behavioral flexibility Cultural empathy--low ethnocentrism Interpersonal skills
Motivational State Belief in the mission Congruence with career path Interest in overseas experience Interest in specific host-country culture Willingness to acquire new patterns of behaviors/attitudes
Family Situation Willingness of spouse to live abroad Adaptive and supportive spouse Stable marriage
Language skills Host-country language Understanding of nonverbal communications
REPATRIATION PROCESS Preparation Physical relocation and transition Readjustment
Preparation Company should provide checklist for expatriate before returning home (e.g. closing bank accounts) and provide background on new position.
Physical relocation and transition Moving to temporary accommodations, make arrangements for housing, schooling, administrative tasks (renewing drivers license, medical insurance, opening bank accounts).
Readjustment Coping with reverse culture shock and new job responsibilities. ------- Symptoms Reduced financial benefits (no COLA) Less power Job alienation – feeling of being out-of-touch Different pace of social life Inability to communicate expatriate exper
Created by: 876040441
 

 



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