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CP unit 1

Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 1 - SPC

External Respiration Exchange of gas molecules btwn blood and alveolar air.
Internal Respiration Exchange of gas molecules btwn blood and tissues at the cellular level.
Structures in the Upper Airways Nose, Mouth, Pharynx, Larynx (Transitional)
Conducting airways in the Lower Airways Trachea, Mainstem Bronchi, Lobar Bronchi, Segmental Bronchi, Subsegmantal Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles (last conductor)
Gas Exchange Airways Respiratory Bronchioles(Starts Diffusion Process,) Alveolar ducts, Alveolar Sacs, Alveoli (Diffusion)
Primary Regions of Nose Vestibular, Olfactory, Respiratory
Vestibular Epithelium & Structures Alae, Vibrissae, Septum Stratified Squamous (No Cilia) Vestibule represents anterior 3rd of nose
Respiratory Epithelium & Structures Turbinates/Conchae Choanae (opens to Nasopharxynx) Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar. posterior 2/3rd of nose
Pharynx Nasopharynx-Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Oropharynx-Stratified Squamous Laryngo/Hypopharynx-Stratified Squamous
Stratified Squamous is in: Vestibular Area, Oropharynx, Laryngo/Hypopharyxn, Above Vocal Cords (Larynx),
PSC Columnar is in: Respiratory Area, Nasopharynx, Below Vocal Cords(Larynx), Conducting Airway,
Cubodial is in: Respiratory Bronchiole,
Simple Squamous is in: Type I in Alveoli,
Cartilages that support & protect the Larynx Epiglottis- Attaches to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage. Thyroid- (Adams Apple) gives the larynx its triangular shape. Cephalad (above) the cricoid. Cricoid- only complete cartiliginous ring
Trachea & Internal Dimensions 15-20 C Shaped Cartilages Length: 11-13 cm Diameter: 1.5-2.5 cm
Proximal to Trachea Cricoid
Distal to Trachea Carina (21-23cm from lips)
Right Bronchi 20-30 degree angle Length: 2.5 cm Diameter: 1.4 cm
Left Bronchi 40-60 degree angle Length: 5 cm Diameter 1.0 cm
Composition of Lower Airways PSC Goblet Cells/Submucosal Glands: Produce Mucus Basal Cells "reserve cells" replace depleted goblet or cilia cells
Compostion of Lamina Propria Lymphatic Vessels(pull extra fluid out,) Smooth Muscle(structural support,) Mast Cells, Vagal Nerve Branches- No Epithelial
First area of Gas Exchange Respiratory Bronchiole (simple cubodial)
2 Pathways of collateral Vent Canals of Lambert / Pores of Kohn
Type I Squamous Pneumocyte- Structural Support and gas exchange
Type II Granular Pneumocyte- Inclusion Bodies produce surfactant
Type III Alveolar Macrophage- "scavenger" cleans bacteria and debris from mucus
Layers of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Alveolar Epithelium, Alveolar Basement Membrane, Interstitium, Capillary Basement Membrane, Capillary Endothelium
Composition of Interstitium Tight Space- gas exchange Loose Space- Collagen for support and lymphatic vessels for fluid drainage
Thoracic Cage Clavicles, Sternum, Ribs True Ribs- vertebrosternal- 1-7 False vertebrocostal- 8-10 Floating- no attachment 11, 12
Pleural Cavity Visceral Pleura (on organ) Parietal Pleura (lines ribs, diaphragm, mediastinum) Pulmonary Ligament (root of the lung- where the visceral & parietal fuse)
Mediastinum Trachea, Mainstem Bronchi, Heart, Ascending Aorta, Pulmonary Artery, Thoracic Duct, Esophagus, Phrenic and Vagus Nerves
Right Lobes Upper, Middle, Lower
Right Segments Upper: Apical, Posterior, Anterior Middle: Lateral, Medial Lower: Superior, Medial Basal, Anterior Basal, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal
Left Lobes Upper, Lower
Left Segments Upper: Apical, Posterior, Anterior Lower: Superior, Anterior Medial, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal *Left/Lingual* Superior Lingualar, Inferior Lingualar
Right Fissures Horizontal: Separates Upper & Middle Oblique: Separates Middle & Lower
Left Fissures Oblique: Separates Upper & Lower
Bronchiole Blood Supply 1/3rd of venous flow returns to the R Atrium via the Azygos, Hemiazygos, and intercostal veins. 2/3rds form Bronchopulmonary anastomoses that go back to the L Atrium via the pulmonary veins.
Pulmonary Lymphatic System that drains pleural fluid Superfical: below visceral Pleura
Lymphatic System AKA Deep/peribronchovascular Take from Hilum & Dump to the Thoracic Duct (10-50 ml/hour)
Nonspecific Defenses Sneeze-induced by trigeminal nerve, Cough- induced by glossopharyngeal or vagus nerve, Mucociliary Escalator- cholinergic stimulation, Alveolar Clearance- macrophages
Specific Defenses (Immunoglobulins) IgA: Antiviral IgE: Assoc. w/ Type I hypersensitivity rxs (asthma) IgG and IgM: Antibacterial/Antiviral
Specific Defenses (Lymphocytes) B: Originate in Bone Marrow- Produce gamma globulin antibodies T: originate in Thymus Gland- T4 helpers, t8 suppressors
Larynx Functions Speech, Prevent Aspiration
Paired Cartilages Arytenoids- vocal cords attched via the the vocal proccesses @ Base. Corniculates- along the posterior wall of the larynx, lay on top of arytenoids. Cuneforms- anterior and lateral to corniculates.
Created by: irishblue82