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Ch 17 Digestive

Digestive System

How long is the entire alimentary canal? 30 ft
What are the parts of the alimentary canal? mouth, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,and anus
What is the terminal portion of the esophagus called? cardiac antrum
Where does the esophagus begin? Level of C-6
What level does the esophagus pass through the diaphragm? T-10
How many layers is the stomach composed of? 4
What is the name of the muscle controlling the opening between the stomach and the duodenum? Pyloric sphincter
Which body habitus is the stomach nearly vertical? Asthenic
Which body habius is the stomach nearly horizontal? Hypersthenic
What are the main functions of the stomach? storage, chemical breakdown of food
What is the widest portion of the small bowel? Duodenum
What is the most distal portion of the small bowel? Ileum
What are the main functions of the small bowel? Digestion, absorption
What is the average length of the large intestine? 5 ft
How many layers is the large intestine made of? 4
The jejunum and ileum are attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen by what? mesentery
What is the main functions of the large intestine? reabsorption of fluids, eliminate waste
The appendix is attached to what portion of the colon? Cecum
What was the junction named that connect the small intestine to the large intestine? Ileocecal valve
What are the contracting waves by which the intestines move the food towards the rectum called? Peristalisis
How long does it take barium to go through the alimentary canal to the rectum? 24 hrs
Which contrast mediums are used for the examination of the GI tract? Air, Barium Sulfate, water soluble iodinated contrast
What is the most common contrast medium used for x-rays of the GI tract? Barium Sulfate
What is the most important technical consideration when imaging the GI tract? Elimination of motion
What is the respiration phase for all GI exams, unless noted otherwise? suspend expiration at the end of expiration
What oblique position best demonstrates the esophagus? PA, RAO
What is the degree of obliquity for the esophagus? 35-40 degrees
What is the recommended position of the patient for a study on the esophagus? Recumbent
What are the 2 main reasons for laying a patient down for an exam on the esophagus? better filling of the varices, more complete filling of the esophagus
What projections are done to examine the esophagus? Lateral, AP or PA, PA oblique
What is the centering plane for a lateral esophagus? midcoronal plane
If an esophageal varices is suspected, what is the main instructions used for breathing? expirate, swallow the barium, then hold breath out until exposure is made
What are the instructions for an UGI concerning food or drink? nothing to eat or drink after midnight
What is the average amount of time food and drink needs to be withheld for an UGI study? 8 hrs
What are the main routines used for an examination of the stomach when concerning barium? single contrast, double contrast barium studies
Which drug may be given before a double contrast exam to help relax the GI tract? Glucagon
What are the advantages for doing a double contrast UGI? small lesions are not obscured, lining of the stomach is better visualized
When imaging the stomach in a PA position and using a 30x35 IR, where is the centering point? sagittal plane passing halfway between the vertebral column and the left lateral border of the abdomen
Where is the IR centered for a prone PA projection of the stomach and duodenum? L1-L2
If standing up for a PA projection of the stomach, how much lower should the film be moved? 3-6 inches
What are the main projections for imaging the stomach and duodenum? AP LPO, PA RAO
What is the degree of obliquity for a PA oblique projection of the stomach? 40-70 degrees
________ patients require a greater degree of obliquity for imaging the stomach? hypersthenic
Which projection of the stomach shows the duodenal bulb and loop in profile? PA RAO
Where is the IR centered for MOST of the images done on the stomach and duodenum? L1-L2
What projection of the stomach could a positioning sponge be used? AP oblique
What is the average degree of rotation for an AP obl projection of the stomach? 45 degrees
What is the range of rotation for AP obliques? 30-60 degrees
What projection(s) will demonstrate the fundus of the stomach the best? AP LPO
Which plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection of the stomach? a plane passing midway between the midcoronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen
Which projection demonstrated the anterior and posterior surfaces? lateral
Which projection of the stomach demonstrates a hiatial hernia? AP Trendelenberg
Which projection of the stomach shows the retrogastric portionof the duodenum and jejenum? AP supine, AP Trendelenberg
Name the different methods for administering barium for a small bowel exam. by mouth, reflex filling, enteroclysis
What are the patient preparation instructions for a small bowel series? No fluids after the evening meal the day before and no breakfast the day of the exam
When is the first radiograph taken after the barium is ingested? 15 min
What are the main projection used for a small bowel? AP, PA abdomen
Where is the centering point for a small bowel 30 min after drinking the barium? 2 in above the Iliac crests
Where is the centering point for films taken 30 min after drinking the barium for a small bowel? At the Iliac crests
What is different in doing a small bowel exam compared to an UGI? A timing marker
What are the main ways to examine the large bowel? single contrast, double contrast
When do you use a high density barium? double contrast exam
What are the preparations for the bowels when doing a BE exam? Laxatives, bowel cleansing regimen, dietary restrictions
What position does the patient need to be in for the enema tip insertion? Sims
Who should be inflating the enema tip? the radiologist using fluoro
How far above the anus is the barium filled bag placed for a BE exam? no higher than 24 inches
How far do you insert the enema tip into the rectum? No more than 4 in
What are the methods of performing a double contrast enema exam? single-stage, two-stage
What is the respiration phase for all projection of the lg bowel? suspend respiration
Which projections will demonstrate the rectosigmoid area during a BE? Lateral, AP and PA Axial
What is the CR angle for a PA Axial of the large bowel? 30-40 degrees caudad
Where is the CR directed on and AP or PA oblique projection of the large bowel? 1 to 2 in lateral to the midline of the body on the elevated side at the level of the iliac crests
Which projections of the colon demonstrated the rt. colic flexure? PA RAO, or AP LPO
Which projections of the colon demonstrated the Lt. colic flexure? PA LAO, or AP RPO
What is the medical term used to describe the surgical procedure that forms an artificial opening to the intestine for fecal material to exit the body? enterostomy
What are the thick folds in the stoach termed? rugae
85% of the population are these body habitus types? sthenic, hyposthenic
Where is the cecum located? the junction of the ileum and the colon
Which body habitus is the intestines bunched together and very low in the abdomen? asthenic
Created by: radgirl37
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