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HELA Exam Review

Literary Techiniques

QuestionAnswer
Tone author's attitude towards the subject
Tragedy broadly defined, a literary and particularly a dramatic presentation of serious actions in which the chief character has a disastrous fate.
Comedy A work intended to interest, involve, and amuse the reader or audience, in which no terrible disaster occurs and that ends happily for the main characters.
Hubris Excessive pride or self-confidence that leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law. In tragedies, hubris is a very common form of hamartia.
Ironic Deeds
Unconsciously Ironic Speech
Dramatic Irony
Sophoclean Irony
Hamartia "some error or frailty" that brings about misfortune for a tragic hero. The concep is closely related to that of the tragic flaw: both lead to downfall of the protagonist in a tragedy. Hamartia may be interpreted as an internal weakness in a character
Anagnorisis the recognition or discovery by the protagonist of the identity of some character or the nature of his own predicament, which leads to the resolution of the plot; denouement
Recognition The point at which a character understands his or her situation as it really is.
Reversal The point at which the action of the plot turns in an unexpected direction for the protagonist.
Peripeteia sudden and unexpected change of fortune or reverse of circumstances
Catharsis describes the release of the emotions of pity and fear by the audience at the end of a tragedy.
Choragus A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus
Chorus (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings.
Ode usually a lyric poem of moderate length, with a serious subject, an elevated style, and an elaborate stanza pattern.
Strophe the strophe and the antistrophe were alternating stanzas sung aloud.
Anti-Strophe the strophe and the antistrophe were alternating stanzas sung aloud.
Exposition introduces the situation, characters, setting, conflict
Rising Action A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax
Climax The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader.
Falling Action The events after the climax which close the story.
Denouement The resolution of the plot of a literary work.
Catastrophe The action at the end of a tragedy that initiates the denouement or falling action of a play.
Conflict A struggle between opposing forces in a story or play, usually resolved by the end of the work.
Objective Narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a detached observer). Does not assume character's perspective and is not a character in the story. The narrator reports on events and lets the reader supply the meaning.
Obstacle something that impedes progress or achievement.
Complication refers to the difficult circumstances that come about through the character's attempts to find solutions to his/her problem.
In media res The classical tradition of opening an epic not in the chronological point at which the sequence of events would start, but rather at the midway point of the story.
Allegory The term loosely describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning.
Diction choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language, which combine to help create meaning.
Syntax The ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns such as phrases, clauses, and sentences. Poets often manipulate syntax, changing conventional word order, to place certain emphasis on particular words.
Connotation Associations and implications that go beyond the literal meaning of a word, which derive from how the word has been commonly used and the associations people make with it.
Denotation The dictionary meaning of a word. See also connotation.
Imagery A word, phrase, or figure of speech (especially a simile or a metaphor) that addresses the senses, suggesting mental pictures of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings, or actions.
Unreliable Narrator An unreliable narrator is a storyteller who "misses the point" of the events or things he describes in a story, who plainly misinterprets the motives or actions of characters, or who fails to see the connections between events in the story.
Stream of Consciousness Writing in which a character's perceptions, thoughts, and memories are presented in an apparently random form, without regard for logical sequence, chronology, or syntax.
Dystopian literature oppression and rebellion
Metonymy a figure of speech which substitutes one term with another that is being associated with the that term. A name transfer takes place to demonstrate an association of a whole to a part or how two things are associated in some way.
Anaphor Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of word groups occurring one after the other.
Aphorism Short, often witty statement presenting an observation or a universal truth; an adage.
Apostrophe Addressing an abstraction or a thing, present or absent; addressing an absent entity or person; addressing a deceased person.
Juxtaposition
Climax The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader.
Falling Action The events after the climax which close the story.
Denouement The resolution of the plot of a literary work.
Catastrophe The action at the end of a tragedy that initiates the denouement or falling action of a play.
Conflict A struggle between opposing forces in a story or play, usually resolved by the end of the work.
Objective Narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a detached observer). Does not assume character's perspective and is not a character in the story. The narrator reports on events and lets the reader supply the meaning.
Obstacle something that impedes progress or achievement.
Complication refers to the difficult circumstances that come about through the character's attempts to find solutions to his/her problem.
In media res The classical tradition of opening an epic not in the chronological point at which the sequence of events would start, but rather at the midway point of the story.
Allegory The term loosely describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning.
Diction choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language, which combine to help create meaning.
Syntax The ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns such as phrases, clauses, and sentences. Poets often manipulate syntax, changing conventional word order, to place certain emphasis on particular words.
Connotation Associations and implications that go beyond the literal meaning of a word, which derive from how the word has been commonly used and the associations people make with it.
Denotation The dictionary meaning of a word. See also connotation.
Imagery A word, phrase, or figure of speech (especially a simile or a metaphor) that addresses the senses, suggesting mental pictures of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings, or actions.
Unreliable Narrator An unreliable narrator is a storyteller who "misses the point" of the events or things he describes in a story, who plainly misinterprets the motives or actions of characters, or who fails to see the connections between events in the story.
Stream of Consciousness Writing in which a character's perceptions, thoughts, and memories are presented in an apparently random form, without regard for logical sequence, chronology, or syntax.
Dystopian literature oppression and rebellion
Metonymy a figure of speech which substitutes one term with another that is being associated with the that term. A name transfer takes place to demonstrate an association of a whole to a part or how two things are associated in some way.
Anaphor Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of word groups occurring one after the other.
Aphorism Short, often witty statement presenting an observation or a universal truth; an adage.
Apostrophe Addressing an abstraction or a thing, present or absent; addressing an absent entity or person; addressing a deceased person.
Juxtaposition The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development.
paradox a statement whose two parts seem contradictory yet make sense with more thought.
Parallelism an arrangement of the parts of a composition so that elements of equal importance are balanced in similar constructions.Parallelism is a rhetorical device.
Mood The climate of feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting, objects, details, images, and words all contribute towards creating a specific mood
Synecdoche understanding one thing with another; the use of a part for the whole, or the whole for the part. (A form of metonymy.)
Chiasmus two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a); from shape of the Greek letter chi
Litotes understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed
Euphemism substitution of an agreeable or at least non-offensive expression for one whose plainer meaning might be harsh or unpleasant
Sarcasm is one kind of irony; it is praise which is really an insult; sarcasm generally invovles malice, the desire to put someone down
Buildungsroman A bildungsroman is a novel that traces the development of a character from childhood to adulthood, through a quest for identity that leads him or her to maturity
Created by: pgarbs