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AP psych Ch. 5 + 6

Sensation Ch. 5 + 6 Pg. 197-269

Sensation detecting physical energy from the environment and encoding it as neural signals.
Bottom-Up Process begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information.
Perception selecting, organizing, and interpreting our sensations.
Top-Down Process Information processing guided by higher-level mental process.
Psychophysics The study of how physical energy relates to our psychological experience.
Absolute Thresholds The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 505 of the time.
Signal Detection Theory A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation.
Subliminal Below one’s absolute threshold for conscience awareness.
Priming bringing up old memories without being conscience of it.
Difference Threshold the minimum difference threshold a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time.
Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Transduction the process by which our sensory systems encode stimulus energy as neural messages.
Wavelength The distance from one wave peak to the next determines its hue.
Hue The color we experience. (Blue, green)
Intensity The amount of energy in light waves, influences brightness.
Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Iris controls the size of the pupil.
Lens Focuses the incomining rays into an image.
Accommodation Focus near or far objects.
Retina Rays focus in a multilayer tissue.
Parallel Processing Doing several things at once.
Color Vision Objects reject (reflect) the long wavelengths of the color we perceive them to be. The actual color we make objects out to be is in our mental construction.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory the retina has three types of color receptors, each especially sensitive to one of the three colors, red green, blue.
Opponent-opposite theory opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision.
Color Consistency Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths by the object.
Audition the sense or act of hearing.
Frequency the number of complete wave-lengths that pass a point in a given time.
Pitch a tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency. (Short waves=high frequency, and high pitch, long waves= low frequency and low pitch).
Decibels measuring unit for sound energy.
Inner ear the innermost part of the ear containing the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibular sacs.
Place Theory the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated. Best explains how we sense high pitches.
Frequency Theory the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. Best explains how we sense low pitches.
Conduction Hearing loss hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Sensorineural Hearing loss (Nerve deafness) Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or the auditory nerves.
Cochlear Implant (Bionic Ear) A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
Touch mix of 4 distinct skin senses –pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.
Gate control theory the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that either blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
Sensory Interaction the principle that one sense may influence another. (smell + texture + taste = flavor)
Vestibular sense monitors the head's position and movement.
proximity we group nearby figures together. We see not sex separate lines, but three sets of two lines.
Similarity we group together figures that are similar to each others. Wesee the triangles and circles as vertical columns of similar shapes, not as horizontal rows of dissimilar shapes.
Continuity We perceive smooth, continuous patters rather than discontinuous ones. This patter n could be a series of alternating semicircles, but we perceive it as two continuous lines – one wavy, one straight.
Connectedness because they are uniform and linked, we perceive the two dots and the line between them as a single unit.
Closure we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
Visual Cliff  a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Binocular Cues depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence that depend on the use of two eyes.
convergence a neuromuscular cue caused by the eyes greater inward turn when they view a near object.
Monocular cues depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
Relative Size if we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal images as farther away.
Interposition if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer.
Relative Clarity because light from distance objects passes through more atmospheres, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects.
Texture Gradient a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance.
Relative Height we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away.
Relative Motion As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move.
Linear Perspective parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance.
Phi Phenomenon an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
Perceptual Constancy perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
relative luminance the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings.
 Perceptual Adaptation in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Perceptual Set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Human Factors Psychology a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
Extrasensory Perception(ESP) the controversial claim the perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
Parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.
Created by: the13pianist
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