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Psych 112 - Ch.9


Basic Consept Concepts that have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances
Prototype an especially representative example of a concept
Proposition A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea
Cognitive Schema Integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
Mental Images Mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents (occur in most sensory modalities)
Subconscious Process Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary (e.g., driving a car)
Non conscious process Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness (e.g., relying on insight or intuition)
Implicit Learning Learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned
Mindlessness Mental inflexibility, inertia and obliviousness to the present context
Formal Reasoning Problems problems solved using established methods (algorithms & logic); usually a single correct solution
Informal reasoning problem Informal reasoning problems: problems in which many approaches, viewpoints, or possible solutions may compete; no clear correct solution
deductive reasoning When a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises If premises true, conclusion must be true Reason from general principles to a conclusion Useful process in forming hypotheses Top down reasoning
Inductive Reasoning When the premises provide support for a conclusion , but it’s still possible for conclusion to be false Start with specific facts and try to develop a general principle Bottom up reasoning
Heuristic Rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem-solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution
Dialectical Reasoning Process in which opposing facts are weighed & compared in order to determine the best solution or resolve differences
Reasoning, pre - refelctive stages assumption that correct answers can be obtained through the senses or from the authorities
Reasoning, Quasi - reflective stages Recognize limits to absolute certainty, realize judgments should be supported by reasons, yet pay attention to evidence that confirms beliefs
Reasoning, Reflective stages Consider evidence from a variety of sources and reason dialectically
Barriers to reasoning rationally 1. Exaggerating the Improbable 2. Avoiding Loss 3. Fairness Bias 4. Hindsight Bias 5.Confirmation Bias 6. Mental Sets 7.Need for Cognitive consistancy
Affect heuristic tendency to consult one’s emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively
Availability heuristic Tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
Cognitive dissonance A state of tension the occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his or her behaviour
Three conditions where you are most likely to try to reduce dissonance: 1. Justify a choice or decision that you freely made (e.g., post- decision dissonance) 2. Nneed to justify behaviour that conflicts with your view of yourself 3. Need to justify the effort put into a decision or choice (justification of effort)
Barriers to Reasoning, Exagerating the improbable Common bias to exaggerate the probability of rare events (e.g., getting in a plane crash)
Barriers to Reasoning, Avoiding Loss We respond more cautiously when choices are framed in terms of the risk of losing something than if same choice framed in terms of gain
Barriers to Reasoning, The Fairness bias A sense of fairness often takes precedence over rational self-interest when people make economic choices
Barriers to Reasoning, The Hindsight Bias The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known; the “I knew it all along” phenomenon
Barriers to Reasoning, The Confirmation Bias The tendency to look for or pay attention to only information that confirms one’s own belief
Barriers to Reasoning, Mental Sets A tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems
Algorithms Formulas or procedures for generating correct solutions
Intelligence a concept or construct that refers to individual differences in abilities to: Acquire knowledge Think and reason effectively Deal adaptively with the environment
Psychometric approach, Factor Analysis statistical method for analyzing intercorrelations among measures or test scores
Psychometric approach, G Factor a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
Intelligence, mental age level of intellectual development relative to that of other children
Intelligence, Intelligence Quotient (IQ) originally MA/CA x 100; now derived from norms provided from standardized intelligence tests
Intelligence, Stanford - Binet Intelligence Scale 1916, Mental abilities develop with age. The rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time. IQ = Mental age / Chronological age x 100
Intelligence, Popular intelligence rating scale 1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Welchester IQ Test 1. Information: general world knowledge 2. Comprehension: understanding of social convention and past experience 3. Arithmetic: math reasoning 4. Similarities: abstract thinking 5. Digit span: series of digits 6. Vocabulary
Welchester IQ Test, Performance subsets 1. Digit symbol: timed coding tasks 2. Picture completion: Incompletely drawn figures 3.Block design: copy designs with blocks 4. Picture arrangement: pictures put in order 5. Object assembly: puzzle pieces assembled
Standards for Psychological - Types of Reliability, Test-retest reliability Assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants twice and correlating scores
Standards for Psychological - Types of Reliability, Internal consistency All of the items of the test should measure the same thing
Standards for Psychological - Types of Reliability, Interjudge (inter-rater) reliability Consistency of measurement when different people score the same test
Standards for Psychological - Types of Validity Construct, Content, Predictive
Test Standardization Must create a well-controlled environment for administering the test Normative scores (norms) provide a basis for interpreting an individual score
Stereotype threat a burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance, due to negative stereotypes about his or her group’s abilities
Cognitive approach to intelligence - Many kinds of intelligence - Emphasizes strategies used when thinking about a problem and arriving at a solution - Reject the g factor as resulting from abilities taught & emphasized in school/society rather than how we think and problem-solve
Triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1988) Emphasizes information processing strategies, the ability to creatively transfer skills to new situations, and the practical application of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1988) - Three aspects of intelligence Componential or “analytical” (involves metacognition) Experiential or “creative” Contextual or “practical” (acquire tacit knowledge)
Emotional intelligence ability to identify your own and other people’s emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others
theory of mind A system of beliefs about the way one’s mind and the minds of others work. Knowledge of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings.
componential intelligence The information - processing strategies you draw on when you are thinking intelligently about a problem
metacognition The knowledge or awareness of one's own cognitive processes.
Experiential (creative) intelligence Your creativity in transferring skills to new situations.
Contexual (practical) intelligence The practical application of intelligence, which requires you to take into account the different contaxts in which you find yourself.
tacit knowledge Strategies for knowledge that are not explicitly taught but that instead must be limited.
Emotional intelligence The ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others.
Cognitive Ethology The study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals.
Anthromorphism The tendancy to falsely attribute human qualities to non humal beings
Anthropodenial The tendancy to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals.
Created by: ktutty