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Psychology Sec. 9-2

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning: Your dog wanders around looking for food, and a neighbor throws a bone outside her door. She repeatedly gives a bone to the dog, so the dog always stops at her door. Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurence.
Reinforcement: To teach a dog to sit, give it a treat each time it sits. The treat is a reinforcer and eventually, the dog will sit in order to get the reward. Stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
Primary Reinforcer: They taught chimps to insert the poker chip (PR) into the dispenser in order to get food to please their hunger. Stimulus that is naturally rewarding (ex. food or water)
Secondary Reinforcer: Money is a secondary reinforcer because you associate getting money with buying food, clothes, etc. Stimulus such as money that becomes reinforcing throug its link with a primary reinforcer.
Fixed-ratio schedule: Dentists work on a fixed ration schedule because they get paid $75 per cavity repaired. Schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.
Variable-ratio schedule: Salespersons work on a variable ratio schedule because they don't know how many doorbells they have to ring until they get a sale. Schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained.
Fixed-interval schedule: A teacher gives quizzes on a fixed interval schedule so you would most likely study the day before a test and stop studying immediately afterwards. Schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.
Variable-interval schedule: When trying to call a friend, the line is busy. You keep trying, and you don't know how much time will pass before you reach them. Schedule of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.
Shaping: An experimenter rewards a rat for any action similar to the wanted response (raising a mini flag by pulling the cord), using reinforcement to get closer and closer to the desired behavior. Technique in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward.
Response chains: To learn the complex skill of swimming, you have to understand the 3 basic steps. Arm stroke, breathing, leg kick. After practice, you don't have to think about the steps. The bahavior takes on a rhytym of its own. Learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next.
Aversive Control: Aversive controls cause you to react ro unpleasant stimuli, through negative reinforcers or as punishers. Process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli.
Negative reinforcement: Walking with a stone in your show causes you to limp, so you remove the stone to walk without pain. Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stmulus when the response occurs.
Escape conditioning: A child who doesn't like liver will cry, whine, and gag, causing her dad to remove the liver, allowing her to escape from eating the liver meal. Training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus.
Avoidance Conditioning: Previously the child's whining behavior allowed her to escape the liver. Next time, the father will learn to not give her liver again. Training of an organism to withdraw from an unpleasant stimuli before it starts.
Created by: Bansri Patel