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Chem 178 Chapter 13

Properties of Solutions Review

QuestionAnswer
13.1) A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition is known as what? Solution
13.1) Solutions are found in what form(s) of matter? Solid, liquid, and gas
13.1) Interactions between solute and solvent molecules are known as what? Solvation
13.1) Do polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents or non-polar solvents? Polar
13.1) The dissolving medium of a solution (which is normally the component present in the larger amount) is known as what? Solvent
13.1) A substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution is known as what? Solute
13.1) Is the separation of solute molecules an exothermic or endothermic process? Endothermic
13.1) Is the separation of solvent molecules an exothermic or endothermic process? Endothermic
13.1) Is the formation of a solution an exothermic or endothermic process? Exothermic
13.1) Do non-polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents or non-polar solvents? Non-polar
13.1) Do exothermic processes have a positive or negative ΔH value? Negative
13.1) Do endothermic processes have a positive or negative ΔH value? Positive
13.1) In general, solutions will form if the ΔH value of solution is positive or negative? Negative
13.1) The amount of randomness or disorder is called what? Entropy
13.1) What is a spontaneous process? One that occurs without outside intervention
13.1) Is solution formation favored by an increase or decrease in entropy that accompanies mixing? Increase
13.2) The process of a solution forming a solid is called what? Crystallization
13.2) The amount of solute required to form a saturated solution is the solutions what? Solubility
13.2) What type of solution has undissolved solute and dissolved solute in equilibrium? Saturated
13.2) What type of solution contains less solute than a saturated solution? Unsaturated
13.2) What type of solution contains more solute than an equivalent saturated solution? Supersaturated
13.3) The tendency or a substance to dissolve in another depends on what three things? Solute-solvent interactions, pressure, and temperature
13.3) Is the solubility large or small with strong attraction between solute and solvent molecules? Large
13.3) Are gasoline and water miscible or immiscible liquids? Immiscible
13.3) Are ethanol and water miscible or immiscible liquids? Miscible
13.3) Does a molecule increase its solubility in water with more or less -OH groups? More
13.3) Is solubility greater with higher or lower gas pressure? Higher
13.3) In Henry's Law, what do S, P, and k stand for? S = Solubility of gas, P = partial pressure, k = Henry's law constant
13.3) As temperature increases, does the solubility of solids generally increase or decrease? Increase
13.3) Are gases less or more soluble at higher temperatures? Less
13.4) Do dilute solutions have relatively large concentrations or small concentrations of solute? Small
13.4) Do concentrated solutions have relatively large concentrations or small concentrations of solute? Large
13.4) Molarity, M, is defined as what? Moles of solute per liters of SOLUTION
13.4) Molality, m, is defined as what? Moles of solute per kilograms of SOLVENT
13.4) How is the mass percentage of a component measured? (mass of component in solution per total mass of solution) X 100
13.5) Vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmostic pressure are what type of properties? Colligative
13.5) Is a substance that tends to evaporate readily volatile or nonvolatile? Volatile
13.5) The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase is called what? Vapor pressure
13.5) Does a nonvolatile solute lower or raise the vapor pressure of a solution? Lower
13.5) When a solution freezes, are crystals of a pure or non-pure solvent formed first? Pure
13.5) The temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium is called what? the triple point
13.5) What type of membrane permits passage of some components of a solution? Semipermeable
13.5) The net movement of a solvent from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration is called what? Osmosis
13.5) The pressure required to prevent osmosis is called what? Osmotic pressure
13.5) In the equation PV=nRT, what does each variable stand for? Pressure, Volume, moles, ideal gas constant, and absolute temperature, respectively
13.5) If two solutions have the same osmotic pressure, are they isotonic or hypotonic? Isotonic
13.5) Are hypotonic solutions or hypertonic solutions relative to a more dilute solutions? Hypertonic
13.6) Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium? Colloids
13.6) Are hydrophilic colloids water loving or water hating? Water loving
13.6) Are hydrophobic colloids water loving or water hating? Water hating
Created by: kbruning