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Unit 7

disorders, treatment

Distressful/Disturbing troublesome to other people and oneself
Deviant/Atypical outside the norm
Maladaptive destructive to oneself or others, causes problems in everyday life
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIVTR) lists all currently accepted categories of mental disorders and descriptions, does not list causes or treatments
Diagnostic Labeling describe abnormal behavior, doesn’t explain it
David Rosenhan Study how valid the DSMIVTR is
Sanity vs. Insanity (Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity) legal terms, not medical terms, can you control your actions
Medical Model mental illnesses can be diagnosed based on symptoms and cured through therapy
Biopsychosocial Model biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine to cause psychological disorders
Diathesis Stress Model genetic predisposition and a stressful environment combine to cause psychological disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) persistent, unexplained feelings of tenseness, feel nervous, bad gut feeling
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions, obsessions cause compulsions, compulsions relieve obsessions
Obsessions repetitive thoughts
Compulsions repetitive actions
Phobic Disorder/Phobias disruptive, irrational fears of objects or situations
Social Phobia fear of social situations
Specific Phobia an irrational fear of a specific object or situations
Agoraphobia fear of situations you view as difficult to escape
Panic Disorder sudden bouts of intense, unexplained panic; one or more panic attack
Major Depressive Disorder irrationally experiences two weeks of depressed moods, diminished interest in activities, and other symptoms such as worthlesness
Dysthymic Disorder shares many symptoms or major depressive disorder, but less sever and longer lasting (two years)
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) pattern of when people become depressed, not affected by their lives but by the environment, tend to become depressed in winter months
Bipolar Disorder alternate between depression and an unreasonably optimistic state of mania
Mania extremely happy, energetic
Depression sad, loss of interest
Type I as simple as one manic episode
Type II in between mania and depression, mania mixed with depression
Cyclothymic Disorder less sever but longer lasting than bipolar (two years)
Dissociative Disorders the sense of self has become separated from previous memories, thoughts or feelings
Dissociative Amnesia loss of memory in reaction to a traumatic event, opposite of PTSD
Dissociative Fugue loss of identity and travel to a new location, memory and identity loss,
Depersonalization you feel separated from your body, in a dream watching your body do something
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) an individual experiences two or more distinct and alternating personalities,
Somatoform Disorders psychological disorder manifesting itself physically
Somatization Disorders symptoms in different parts of your body, body issues with pain
Pain Disorder experience pain in one or more areas that cannot be explained medically, just pain
Conversion Disorder for no reason, there is a lack of functioning in motor and sensory areas
Hypochondriasis believe that you are sick when you aren’t, over analyze symptoms of your body
Body Dysmorphic Disorder you fixate on an aspect of your body and believe it is ugly or deformed, you don’t want people to see you
Personality Disorders inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning
Avoidant Personality Disorder fearful of being rejected, relationships are hard to form, avoid social situations
Dependent Personality Disorder behave in clingy or submissive ways, display a strong need for others to take care of them
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) similar to OCD, very controlling, perfectionist, must do things a certain way or follow a certain schedule
Schizoid Personality Disorder detached from social relationships, prefer to be alone
Schizotypal Personality Disorder very strange to the point people don’t want to be around you, strange beliefs
Paranoid Personality Disorder deep distrust or other people, very suspicious, think people are always out to get them
Histrionic Personality Disorder main goal is to get attention, do things to draw attention to themselves, mostly females
Narcissistic Personality Disorder self absorbed to an extreme, surround themselves with people that admire them
Borderline Personality Disorder instability of emotions, self image, behavior, and relationships; afraid of being alone
Antisocial Personality Disorder show a lack of conscious for wrong doing and lack of respect for the rights of others, usually men
Factitious Disorder faking
Munchausen Syndrome (and Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy) fake symptoms or make yourself sick for attention, or make someone else sick for attention
Schizophrenia characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Positive Symptoms in excess of normal functioning
Negative Symptoms lack of normal functioning
Hallucinations false perceptions; senses are activated but there is nothing to activate them
Delusions false beliefs, irrational, no basis in reality
Grandeur you are more important than you actually are
Persecution people are out to get you
Sin/Guilt you are responsible for something that is actually out of your control
Control/Influence being controlled by an outside force
Reference something is referring to you, something was meant to be seen by you
Blunted Affect show little emotion
Flat Affect show no emotion
Inappropriate Affect inappropriate emotions at inappropriate times
Loose Word Associations don’t filter what should and shouldn’t be said, have thoughts that aren’t associated with the conversation
Neologisms new words or languages made up to replace other words, similar to a real words meaning
Clanging new words formed by sound
Word Salad take words, put them together, mix them; nothing makes sense
Acute Schizophrenia comes out of nowhere, sever but doesn’t last long
Chronic Schizophrenia long lasting, gradually gets worse, genetic link
Catatonic don’t move unless you move them, like a Barbie doll
Paranoid delusions of persecution and grandeur, must have hallucinations and delusions
Disorganized bizarre behavior; disorganized languages and emotions
Undifferentiated symptoms that don’t clearly fir one of the other types
Residual you have schizophrenia but don’t show symptoms, only negative symptoms show
Dopamine Hypothesis could be caused by too much dopamine
Brain Structure (Ventricles) ventricles are larger, less brain
Chromosomal or Genetic Abnormalities genes and chromosomes cause schizophrenia
Trephination drill holes in the skull to release bad spirits
Philippe Pinel france, medical model, treat individuals instead of separating them from society
Dorothea Dix take mentally ill out of prisons and put them in institutions where they can receive treatment
Deinstitutionalization close institutions so people can be part of society, instead they can take medication
Primary Prevention aimed at everyone, make sure no one is affected by disorders
Secondary Prevention aimed at people who are at risk
Tertiary Prevention aimed at people who already have a disorder, prevent it from getting worse
Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) stereotypical therapy, lie on a couch and don’t face therapist, things from your past made you have a problem, unconscious motives
Hypnosis doesn’t work well, not everyone
Free Association you start talking to see what comes to mind, these things give insight to unconscious
Dream Analysis analyze dreams to see what is in unconscious
Manifest Content what your dream was
Latent Content meaning of your dream
Resistance blocking from conscious of anxiety laden material, denial, you don’t want to confront it
Interpretation the analysts noting supposed dream meanings, gives insight
Transference patient transfers emotions from a different relationship to the therapist
Psychodynamic Therapy similar to Freud but not as intense, not as long, sitting facing each other
Humanistic Therapy (Carl Rogers) the potential for self fulfillment already exists
Self Actualization point of becoming your best, help boost self esteem
Non Deterministic just because something happened to you in the past doesn’t mean it will affect you later, free will to change how it is
Non Directive person doing therapy directs less, person receiving therapy directs more
Client Centered Therapy therapist uses techniques within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate the clients growth
Active Listening listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
Paraphrasing therapist uses words of the client to summarize the conversation, restate what they say
Clarifying therapist encourages clients to say more by asking questions
Reflecting Feelings therapist mirrors the feelings of the client
Behavioral Therapy applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior, goal is to figure out how we learned something then unlearn it
Counterconditioning teaches us to associate new responses to places or things that in the past have triggered unwanted behaviors, learn the opposite of what you know
Aversive Conditioning associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
Exposure Therapies expose someone to what they are afraid of so they have reduced anxiety
Systematic Desensitization associate pleasant relaxed stated with gradually increasing anxiety triggered stimuli
Progressive Relaxation teach someone to relax
Anxiety Hierarchy apply relaxation to low anxiety situations then work your way up to high anxiety situations
Flooding skip taking steps, go straight to high anxiety situations
Token Economy modify behavior by giving rewards for desired behavior
Social Skills Training (Modeling) combination of watching someone do something then imitating it, then reinforcing it
Cognitive Therapy (Aaron Beck) teaches people new ways of thinking and acting, stop irrational thinking
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Rational Emotive Therapy (Albert Ellis) change irrational thought process in a confrontational way, therapist will yell at you
Group Therapy good for showing you aren’t alone, share ides
Family Therapy views an individual’s unwanted behavior as influenced or directed at family members
Self Help Groups meet with others that have the same disorder
Biomedical Therapy involves changing the brains functioning by using prescribed drugs, electrocompulsive therapy, or surgery
Anti Anxiety Drugs (Anxiolytics) treat people with anxiety disorders or suffering from stress, boost GABA, works right away
Anti Depressant Drugs treat major depression, boost serotonin, takes about a month to work
Anti Psychotic Drugs (Neuroleptics) primarily treats schizophrenia and bipolar, reduce leves of delusions and hallucinations
Brain Stimulation stimulate the brain
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) electric currents are sent through the brain
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) use magnets
Psychosurgery cut the brain
Lobotomy try to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients, cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to deep emotional centers
Corpus Callosotomy cut the corpus callosom to prevent seizures
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) moving your eyes around by thinking about something negative, your brain will process those thoughts differently
Therapeutic Touch Therapy move their energy around my placing your hands over their body
Light Exposure Therapy sit in front of a light machine
Created by: slshepherd
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