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Unit 6


Evolutionary Psychology study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Developed so we can survive and reproduce
DNA contains genetic info that makes up chromosomes
Genes make up chromosomes, distinguished by letters, decide characteristics, come from parents
Chromosomes segment of DNA, made of DNA, contains genes, 46 total, 23 pairs
Genome complete instruction for making an organism, all genetic material in its chromosomes, all genes together
Mutations random errors in gene replication, leads to change in genetic code, can lead to a disorder or predispose you to a disorder
Twin Studies allows researchers to watch the effect of different environments on identical twins and fraternal twins
Identical Twins human clones, genetically the same, begin life in the same egg, have exact same DNA (except mutations)
Fraternal Twins develop in two different eggs, nothing is similar except born at same time
Separated Identical Twins separated at birth, how similar they are to their families, how similar they are to tier twin (DNA)
Adoption Studies biological parents provide nature (personality), adoptive parents provide nurture (political/religious beliefs), compared to adoptive and biological parents
Heritability proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes, degree to which our traits are inherited, 50% of variation in genes are due to environment
Temperament emotional excitability, pretty stable, genetically determined
Easy easy to take care of, smiles a lot, overall happy, consistent routine
Difficult not consistent schedule, hard to take care of, cries a lot
Slow to Warm Up not good at getting used to different things, not easy, not difficult
Prenatal Environment environment, not genes
Nutrition what your mother eats while you’re a fetus
Teratogens (ex: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) substances (external environment) that effects the fetus, causes mental and physical deformations
Trauma trauma that the mother encounters, fetus also encounters, may lead to premature birth, emotional trauma can cause hormonal imbalance
Experiences experiences cause what you think about things
Peer Influence we act and share habits similar to the people we hang out with, negative, positive, and neutral, most influences in elementary, middle school and some high school
Cultural Influences shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next
Individualist give priority to ones goals over group goals, find their identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Collectivist give priority to group goals, and use this to define their identity
Norms understood rules for accepted and expected behavior within a group, socially accepted behavior
X Chromosome females
Y Chromosome males
Gender Roles traditional behaviors that go with gender, male characteristics, female characteristics
Gender Identity which gender you feel like, most the time it matches your gender role
Gender Type process of learning gender role
Learning Gender through Social Learning Theory when we don’t know something, we watch someone and imitate them, learn through parents
Gender Schema Theory stereotypical idea in our minds, we compare this to what we see in reality, change behavior to act like stereotypical idea
Androgyny characteristics of male and female, gender role of both sides
Nature vs. Nurture how much is influenced by biology, how much is influenced by the environment
Continuity vs. Stages something happening continuously. something happening in one stage, then go to next, no in
Stability vs. Change personality, how much is stable (genes), how much changes overtime (like, dislikes)
Cross Sectional many age groups at one time
Longitudinal follow one person for a long period of time
Conception sperm meets egg
Egg female
Sperm male
Zygote fertilized egg, develops into and embryo, rapid cell division, conception thru two weeks
Embryo developing human organism, two weeks thru two months, develop organs and systems
Fetus two months thru birth
Newborn Reflexes automatic, unconscious
Rooting Reflex baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open mouth and search for food
Grasping Reflex put something it baby’s hand, they will grab it
Sucking Reflex anything you put in a baby’s mouth, they will suck it because they think its food
Moro Reflex startle, baby will spread its self out, then bring itself all together
Babinski Reflex if you deckle the bottom of a baby’s foot, their toes will fan out
Brain Development constently developing
Maturation biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, happens regardless of environment
Habituation after we look at something for a while we get bored and look away
Memory hippocampus does not fully develop until 3 months, can’t usually remember things before three years of age
Motor Development kids reach stages at different times, but they reach stages in the same order
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development stage theory, what changes from birth, ability to think
Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2)kids learn through their senses, the move around their environment to explore
Object Permanence even though we can’t see something, we know it is there. Kids don’t understand this
Preoperational Stage (2 to7)ability to use symbols, language
Symbols/Creative Play once kids understand symbols, they can play with it
Centration kids can only focus on one thing at a time, can’t make relations between things
Egocentrism & Theory of Mind take their own perspective, can’t look at something from a different point of view
Concrete Operational Stage (7 to11) we use logical thinking
Conservation you can understand amounts, volume, length, mass, area, numbers
Reversibility something that can be undone
Classification categories
Seriation number order
Formal Operational Stage (11+) begin to logically think about abstract concepts, form strategies, outside the box
Stranger Anxiety the fear of strangers that infants show at about 8 months
Authoritarian imposing rules and expecting obedience, child does what they’re told, parents are pretty cold, because I said so, arbitrary punishments
Authoritative make demands of the child, being responsive, set and enforce rules, discuss reasons behind rules, natural punishment, compromise
Permissive give into childs distress, make few demands, use little punishment, laid back, warm
Uninvolved divorced parents and you only see one every once in a while, parents that work a lot, kids tend to raise themselves
John Bowlby kids were being sent away in WWII for safety, kids were unable to form relationships because they didn’t have attachment during a critical time in their lives
Harry Harlow what is important in forming attachment
Mary Ainsworth student of Bowlby, watches what kids do when they are playing in a room with mom, stranger enters, and mom leaves
Secure healthy,visibly upset when mom leaves, hugs mom when she comes back, no grudge. parents provide reliable, steady, sensitive care, consistently responsible and loving, supportive while encouraging. Kids are socially d, more competent, high self
Anxious Resistant/Ambivalent not healthy, extremely upset without mom, holds grudge when mom comes back. Parents are inconsistent in their caregiving, sometimes supportive and loving, sometimes absent, distracted. Child has low self
Avoidant not healthy, doesn’t pay attention to mom, comfortable with strangers, not upset when mom leaves or comes back. Kids are treated as strangers by their parents and vice versa, relief when parents leave, negative track, lash out at other kids.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development development is less connected to conscious
Trust vs. Mistrust (0 to 1) if needs are met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Kids do not have ability to do things for themselves
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1 to 3) toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6) preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12) children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior (dumb)
Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles, then integrating themselves to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) young adults struggle to form relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. They learn to be alone
Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) discover a sense of contributing to the world through family or work, or they feel a lack of purpose
Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood) when reflecting back on life, may feel sense of satisfaction of failure. If satisfied, you will not be afraid of death
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development how our way of thinking about moral situations change with our levels of development
Preconventional Morality avoid punishment, gain reward. Children under age nine, what’s best for me
Obedience and Punishment something is or isn’t moral based on punishment/reward, moral is external
Individualism and Exchange what is good for me, is what’s moral for me to do, exchange is fairness
Conventional Morality the desire to fit in and play the role of a good citizen, apparent in early adolescence, what’s best for the group
Good Interpersonal Relationships things you do to maintain a good relationship, as long as you have good intentions you are right, makes you moral
Maintaining Social Order you must follow rules or there will be chaos
Postconventional Morality reference to universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people, most people don’t reach this stage
Social Contract & Individual Rights if it doesn’t work then we get rid of it, may try to change it
Universal Principles life is the most important thing, ex: Rosa Parks
Adolescence & Puberty transition from childhood to adulthood, period of sexual maturation in which you become capable of reproduction, pituitary gland
Imaginary Audience/Spotlight Effect we think people notice things about us, but they really don’t
Personal Fable idea that when something happens to us, we are unique. Feeling that no one else know what we are going through
Menarche first period, now able to reproduce
Spermarche first ejaculation, now able to reproduce
Primary Sex Characteristics body structures that make reproduction possible, born with
Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics, develop in puberty
Menopause biological changes in women, ability to reproduce declines
Health become very immune to common illnesses, effected more by illnesses you have not been exposed to
Sensory Abilities not as good, decline
Memory & Alzheimer’s Disease irreversible brain disorder, gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning (acetocholine)
Parkinson’s Disease shaking all the time, dopamine
Intelligence some situations get better, some worse
Crystallized accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, gets better with age
Fluid ability to reason speedily and abstractly, decreases with age
Denial refuse to acknowledge you’re dying
Anger after you acknowledge you are dying
Bargaining try to bargain to God or with your doctor to let you live
Depression you realize you can’t bargain
Acceptance okay with dying
Created by: slshepherd