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Child and Adolescent

LS final

The assertion that development occurs from "womb to tomb" implies that it is a lifelong experience.
Two important processes that underlie developmental changes are maturation and learning.
An example of a maturational change would be disappearance of an infant reflex at a predictable age.
Normative development consists of developmental changes that are typical of many children.
The idea that human development is a holistic process suggests that changes in one aspect of development have important implications for other aspects.
The plasticity principle states that the child responds flexibly to changes in his or her life experiences.
The scientific method suggests that when data contradict one's theory, the researcher should modify or discard the theory.
Reliability means that the measurement is stable over time or across observers.
The advantage of structured interviews over unstructured interviews is that during a structured interview, subjects are all treated alike and responses can be compared among them.
Some of the strengths of naturalistic observation include naturalistic observation can easily be applied, naturalistic observations are particularly useful in studying pre-verbal children, and naturalistic observation illustrates how people behave in everyday life.
A good theory is one that builds on existing knowledge by allowing for the formation of new testable hypotheses, meaning that the theory is heuristic.
Historically, the most heated theoretical controversy has been on the issue of nature vs. nurture.
Behaviorist John Watson argued that traits arise from experience alone.
Developmentalists disagree on the extent to which children contribute directly to their own development. This is known as the active/passive issue.
Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud could be regarded as the first child psychologist because his theory was first to assert that early childhood shapes a person's personality.
The Freudian personality entity that emerges as children internalize parental moral standards and values is the superego.
Behaviorism and its learning viewpoint assert that development is totally flexible and is influenced by the child's experiences.
"We learn by watching and copying others' actions." This could be a slogan of Bandura's cognitive social-learning theory.
Piaget's process of accommodation involves modifying a scheme in response to new experiences.
In Piaget's theory, this is the correct stage sequence, ordered from earliest on: sensorimotor/preoperational/concrete operational
The idea that the cognitive development of children is significantly influenced by their specific cultural context was proposed by Lev Vygotsky
The ways in which a person's inherited characteristics are observable or measurable is referred to as phenotype.
The zygote is the earliest developmental stage at which the young organism contains the hereditary material from both mother and father.
Mitosis is like making photocopies of a written report.
For traits that are determined by single pairs of genes, recessive traits occur on population phenotypes less often than those of dominant traits.
When a person is homozygous for an inherited trait, the alleles inherited from mother and father are both the same.
Sex-linked genetic characteristics appear in phenotypes of men more often than women.
The overall goal of modern genetic counseling is to inform the couple about their risk of having a baby with a serious genetic/congenital defects.
The correct sequence of prenatal diagnostic tests from earliest to latest availability is Chorionic villus sampling :: amniocentesis :: ultrasound.
The correct prenatal sequence of periods, from earliest to latest is period of the zygote :: embryonic period :: fetal period.
Of the following, the substance that typically cannot pass through the placenta to the developing embryo is maternal blood cells.
At the end of the embryonic period, all the major structures of the human are formed.
The 24th week is often set as the legal upper limit for medical abortion. At this point in time, the milestone that is reached by the developing fetus is the minimal age of viability has been reached.
A teratogen is a(n) substance, disease, or environmental agent that causes developmental harm at particular times during pregnancy.
While pregnant, Terry was exposed briefly to a very small amount of a teratogen. The effects of exposure will be varied, depending on the timing of the exposure.
Teratogens are most likely to produce major structural abnormalities during the second to eighth weeks following conception.
A pregnant woman tells her neighbor, "I know about fetal alcohol syndrome, and I've reduced my drinking. I now drink moderately with friends." Her social drinking can cause symptoms of fetal alcohol effect (FAE), despite her moderation.
The prenatal/perinatal health problems of teenage mothers are usually eliminated when the mother gets good prenatal care and attention at birth.
Margaret's newborn baby is crying loudly in the delivery room and has turned pink all over. When a nurse extends the baby's leg, the infant pulls away. Margaret's newborn would score 8 to 10 points on the APGAR scale.
Perception refers to meaningfully interpreting sensory input.
In addition to their nutritional and protective functions, the young infant’s survival reflexes promote close contact with nurturant caregivers.
Wanda says, "I'm worried about Huey. He had many neonatal reflexes, and months later, only half are left. Is Huey normal?" The doctor says, "Yes, the primitive reflexes are lost during infancy."
Young infants generally prefer to look at complex patterns instead of plain stimuli.
In newborns, the sense that is LEAST developed, and least similar to adult senses, is vision.
When a young infant is held over the deep side of the visual cliff, its heart pulse rate slows. This response indicates that the young baby perceives the height but does not fear it.
Learning is customarily defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
The most rapid gains in body height occur during infancy.
The cephalocaudal trend of development means that first the head develops, followed by the body and legs.
With regard to gender differences in skeletal development, girls mature faster than boys.
During adolescence, boys experience increases in muscle mass and physical strength more dramatically than girls.
When neurons communicate messages to each other, the communication happens at a tiny junction called the synapse.
The plasticity principle of early neural development implies that cells of the brain can retrain themselves following brain injury.
Infant motor skills arranged from earliest to latest in the universal developmental sequence: rolls over :: crawls :: stands alone :: walks up steps
One twin practices an early skill and the other does not. Two years later, both do equally well at it. This supports the maturational viewpoint on skills.
The average occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt happens earlier for girls than for boys.
The secular trend of sexual maturation is an outcome of improved medical care and better nutrition during recent decades.
Early maturation is often initially a social advantage for boys and a social disadvantage for girls.
Robinson was always well fed. At age three, he and his family were shipwrecked, and for weeks, he suffered malnutrition. After being rescued, Robinson probably had "catch-up" growth and then developed normally.
Although experts vary in how they define intelligence, there is some agreement that it includes abilities to think abstractly and solve problems.
The goal of Alfred Binet's first intelligence test was to identify mentally retarded children who needed special teaching.
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences identifies 7 to 9 types of intelligence.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence includes the following four types of intelligence: musical, spatial, linguistic, and intrapersonal.
Wechsler's IQ tests were better than the Stanford-Binet because the Wechsler scales assessed both nonverbal and verbal scales.
Feelings such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride, or envy are known as self-conscious emotions.
Lewis claimed that the child does not feel embarrassment until after he or she is capable of self-recognition in photos or mirrors.
The ways that parents react to their children's transgressions can influence whether they will feel guilt or shame.
A mother tells her toddler that it's okay to scream and shout at a sporting event but not in church. These are display rules.
Social referencing" refers to the child's ability to use the reactions of others to interpret an ambiguous stimulus or situation.
Rhythmicity, fearful distress, andactivity level are among the six attributes of infant temperament.
The goodness-of-fit principle states that parents should optimize parenting style for the child's temperament.
Emotional attachments between parent and child slowly rise from social interactions in the first months.
Synchronized interactions between infants and their parents are important contributors to emotional attachment because they provide an opportunity for the infant to learn what his parent is like and how to attract his or her attention.
Lorenz's ethological "Kewpie doll" effect states that the infant's cute babyish facial features strengthen parental bonding.
The fact that newborns can imitate facial expressions seen in others suggests that they are capable of using internal proprioceptive sensory feedback.
The ability to notice oneself in a mirror or photograph is called self-recognition.
Gordon Gallup showed that apes respond to the "rouge test" just like older infants do, but monkeys do not. This result implies that apes have a sense of self-recognition.
A social experience that is known to contribute positively to the child's sense of self-awareness is secure attachment to a caregiver.
Low self-esteem is most strongly associated with failure to gain the approval of friends in girls and lack of romantic competence in boys.
In the TV cartoon series, The Simpsons, Bart's sister Lisa works hard to excel in her school work. Lisa exemplifies a child with high achievement motivation.
Parents of children who have a high need to achieve set high standards and praise successes.
Lawrence Steinberg evaluated the impact of peer influences on academic achievement motivation. He found that African American and Latino peer groups in low-income areas tend to discourage academic achievement.
The child's use of "behavioral comparisons" to make judgments about people peaks at the age of about eight to nine years.
Created by: vpowell