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Learning

psychology around us . ch 7 learning

QuestionAnswer
learning is a lasting change caused by experience
who were the fathers of learning? ivan pavlov and edward thorndike
what are the two types of learning? associative and non-associative
what is non associative learning? learning that results from a single sensory cue. includes habituation and sensitization
what is habituation a weakening of a response due to repeated presentation
what is sensitization an increase of a response due to repeated stimulus presentation.
what is sensitization usually in response to? punishment
what is associative learning? connections that are formed between two or more stimuli
classical conditioning and operant conditioning are apart of what type of learning? associative learning
what is importance of implicit memory to the notion of the unconscious? we are not usually aware of our implicit memories and cannot recall them at will, but they are professed by the skills that we acquire
the most basic type of learning is non-associative learning
learning is controlled by lab experiments. this is also known as what type of research? experimental research
what form of learning does not involve the active participation of the learning? what does it attempt? operant conditioning; also known as instrumental conditioning. it is learning in an attempt to receive rewards and void punishment
what was edward thorndikes "puzzle box" contraption? and what type of learning did it involve thorndike placed a hungry cat in a cage that could escape by pressing a string. once it accidentally discovered this, it would more quickly engage in that behavior. involved operant conditioning
what was thorndike's law of effect? behaviors leading to reward are more likely to occur again, and vise versa with punishment
what is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement? positive = providing a motivating stimulus. <a> negative = removing a stimulus.
what is a positive punishment? administers an unpleasant consequence for behavior.
what is a negative punishment? involves taking away something pleasant
how does classical conditioning work? unconditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, which becomes the conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response
what is stimulus generalization? similar but not identical stimuli can take the place of a CS.
little albert being scared of white beards in addition to white rats is an example of what? stimulus generalization
what is systematic desensitization? a repeated exposure to a feared object without the unconditioned stimulus
what are primary reinforcers? a reinforcer that is intrinsically pleasurable. this includes fulfilling basic biological needs. ex) food
what is a secondary reinforcer? a reinforcer that is associated with primary reinforcers. ex) money associated with food
what is intermittent or partial reinforcement? behavior that is only sometimes reinforced
what is the fixed ratio schedule? reinforcement that occurs after a specific number of responses. ex) frequent drinker card
what is the variable ratio schedule? the number of responses required for reinforcement varies. ex) text messages
what is the fixed interval schedule? reinforcement is based on the time elapsed.
what is shaping? a method that involves giving rewards to actions that are increasingly closer to the desired final behavior
spatial navigation learning is an example of what? learning without reinforcement
what is insight learning? a sudden realization of a solution or leap in understanding new concepts
what is observational learning? learning from watching the behavior of others
observation leads to what? mimicry; or modeling, which is proof that learning has occurred.
bandura's experiment was an experiment of observational learning. she showed children a video of a chick beating up a doll, and then after words the kids were twice as likely to beat up the doll too
the stroop effect - why the difficulty? bottom-up processing interferes with the ability to focus on just one contradictory stimuli
what is evidence that there is no single learning center in the brain? the fact that we can learn without our own awareness
classical conditioning of the eye blink response is associated with the cerebellum
fear conditioning involves the amyglada
reward learning relies on what neurotransmitter system? the dopamine system
motor learning involves activation of what region of the brain? the basal ganglia
spatial navigation learning and episodic learning in general involve what? the hippocampus
what is long-term potentiation a form of synaptic change that involves increased activity in post-synaptic cells after strong, repetitive stimulation
the phrase "cells that fire together, wire together" describes what process? hebb's theory. cells that are activated at around the same time as one another have a stronger synapse
what the five types of major conditioning processes acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination
operant conditioning is similar to what law? the law of effect
what is temporal contiguity? the closeness in time between pairs of events that leads to association
yelling at a child for peeing in their pants is what type of punishment? positive punishment
You buckle seat beat and annoying buzzer sound is removed. this is a negative _______ reinforcer. it increases the likely hood that you will wear your seatbelt
latent learning is done without reinforcement and is not used until called for
what are examples of latent learning? spatial navigation and insight learning
all learning involves changes in what? synaptic strength
Created by: bsoteros