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Chap. 3 & 4

Intro to Sociology

QuestionAnswer
Socialization the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
personality a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
id Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
ego Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society
superego Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
sensorimotor stage Piaget's temr for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
preoperational stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
concrete operational stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings
formal operational stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
self George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
looking-glass self Charles Horton Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
significant others people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
generalized other Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
peer group a social group whose memebers have interests, social position, and age in common
anticipatory socialization learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
mass media the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience.
social group two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
primary group a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
secondary group a large and impersonal social group whose memebers pursue a specific goal or activity
insrumental leadership group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
expressive leadership group leadership that focuses on the groups well-being
groupthink the tendency of group members to to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
reference group a social group that serves as a point of refernece in making evaluations and decisions
in-group a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
out-group a social group toward which a member feels a sense of competition or opposition
dyad a social group with two members
triad a social group with three members
network a web of weak social ties
formal organization a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
tradition values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
rationality a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
rationalization of society Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
bureaucracy an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
organizational environment factors outside an organization that affect its operation
bureaucratic ritualism a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
bureaucratic inertia the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
oligarchy the rule of the many by the few
scientific management Frederick Taylor's term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
Created by: Shanti2
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