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# PSY 206 Final

### Finals

Magnitude (1) a property of measurement in which the ordering of numbers reflects the ordering of the variable (2) An indication of the strength of the relationship between two variables
Scatterplot A figure that graphically represents the relationship between 2 variable
Causality The assumption that a correlation indicates a causal relationship between 2 variables
Directionality The inference made with respect to the direction of a causal relationship between 2 variables
Third-variable problem The problem of a correlation between two variables being dependent on another (third) variable Ex. ice cream consumption and drowning
Partial correlation A correlation technique that involves measuring three variables and then statistically removing the effect of the third variable from the correlation of the remaining 2
Restrictive Range A variable that is truncated and has limited variability Ex. SAT scores and GPA
Person-who argument Arguing that a well-established statistical trend is invalid because we know a "person who" went against the trend
Between-participants design An experiment in which different participants are assigned to each group
Posttest-only control group design An experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured after the manipulation of the independent variable
Pretest/posttest control group An experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured both before and after manipulation of the independent variable
History effect Changes in the dependent variable may be due to outside events that take place during the course of the study Minimize: Use an equivalent control group
Nonequivalent control group Problems in participant selection or assignment may lead to important differences between the participants assigned to the experimental and control groups Minimize: Random sampling and random assignment
Maturation effect Changes in the dependent variable may be due to participants maturing (growing older) during the course of the study Minimize: Use an equivalent control group
Testing effect Changes in the dependent variable may be due to participants being tested repeatedly and getting either better or worse because of the repeated testing Minimize: use and equivalent control group
Regression to the mean Participants who are selected for a study because they are extreme (high or low) on some variable may regress toward that mean and be less extreme at a later testing Minimize: equivalent group of participants with extreme scores
Instrumentation effect Changes in the dependent variable may be due to changes in the measuring device, either human or machine Minimize: equivalent control group
Mortality Differential attrition or dropout in the experimental and control groups may lead to inequality between the groups Minimize: monitor for differential loss of participants in experimental and control groups
Diffusion of treatment Changes in the behaviors or responses of participants may be due to information they have received from others participating in the study Minimize: testing participants all at once
Experimenter and subject effects Either experimenters or participants consciously of unconsciously affect the results of the Minimize: Double-blind study
Floor and ceiling effects the measuring instrument used is not sensitive enough to detect differences Minimize: ensure the measuring device is reliable and valid before the study
Single-blind experiment An experimental procedure in which either the participants or the experimenter are blind to the manipulation being made
Double-blind experiment An experimental procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the participant knows the condition to which each participant has been assigned; both parties are blind to the manipulation
Placebo group a group or condition in which participants believe they are receiving treatment but are not
Placebo an inert substance that participants believe is a treatment
External validity the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized
college sophomore problem results from using mainly college sophomores as participants in research studies
exact replication repeating a study using the same means of manipulating and measuring the variables as in the original study
conceptual replication a study based on another study that uses different methods, a different manipulation, or a different measure
systematic replication a study that varies from an original study in one systematic way Ex: using a different number or type of participants
factorial design a design with more that one independent variable (herbal supplement (two types) and rehearsal (two types)
factorial notation the notation that indicates how many independent variables are used in a study and how many levels are used for each Ex. 2x2 (2 independent variables with 2 levels each)
main effect an effect of a single independent variable Ex: in a study with 2 independent variables, 2 main effects are possible
interaction effect the effect of each independent variable across the levels of the other independent variable Ex: herbal supplement and rehearsal type
correlated-groups design an experimental design in which the participants in the experimental and control groups are related in some way Ex: within and between participant designs
within-participants design a type of correlated- groups design in which the same participants are used in each condition Ex: TV violence (both groups view violent and nonviolent programs)
order effects the order of the conditions has an effect on the dependent variable Ex: viewing a violent tv program could influence the nonviolent tv program
counterbalancing a mechanism for controlling order effects either by including all orders of treatment presentation or by randomly determining the order for each participant Ex: half watch the violent then the nonviolent while half watch nonviolent then violent
cross-sectional design a type of developmental design in which participants of different ages are studied at the same time Ex:a researcher interested in cog abilities across ages might study groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and so on
cohort a group of individuals born at about the same time Ex:Me and other 19-year-olds
cohort effect a generational effect in a study that occurs when the eras in which individuals are born affect how they respond in the study Ex:the cog abilities of the 5-year-olds may be different from the 11-year-olds because of how/when they were raised
longitudinal design a type of developmental design in which the same participants are studied repeatedly over time as they age Ex:study the cog abilities of 5-year-olds every 3 years
sequential design a developmental design that is a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Ex:study the cog abilities of each of the groups every 3 years
frequency distributions A list of all scores occurring in the distribution along with the frequency of each Use with: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio data Ex
class interval frequency distribution a table in which the scores are grouped into intervals and listed along with the frequency of scores in each interval
qualitative variable a categorical variable for which each value represents a discrete category Ex: gender
bar graph A pictorial graph with bars representing the frequency of occurrence of items for qualitative variables Use with: Nominal data
quantitative variable a variable for which the scores represent a change in quantity Ex: temperature
histogram A pictorial graph with bars representing the frequency of occurrence of items for quantitative variables Use with: ordinal, interval, or ratio data
frequency polygon a line graph of the frequencies of individual scores Ex: IQ score data
descriptive statistics numerical measures that describe a distribution by providing information on the central tendency of the distribution, the width of the distribution, and the shape of the distribution Ex: mean, median, mode, skew, kurtosis
measure of central tendency a number that characterizes the "middleness" of an entire distribution Ex:mean, median, and mode
mean the arithmetic average Use with: interval and ratio
median the middle score in a distribution of scores organized from highest to lowest or lowest to highest Use with: ordinal, interval, and ratio
mode the score occurring with the greatest frequency Use with: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio data
measure of variation a number that indicates the degree to which scores are either clustered or spread in a distribution Ex: range, standard deviation
range a measure of variation; the difference between the lowest and highest scores in a distribution Ex: 7-2=5
standard deviation the square root of the average squared deviation from the mean of the distribution
variance the standard deviation squared
normal curve a symmetrical bell-shaped frequency polygon representing a normal distribution
normal distribution a theoretical frequency distribution that has certain special characteristics
kurtosis how flat or peaked a normal distribution is
mesokurtic normal curves that have peaks of medium height and distributions that are moderate in breadth
leptokurtic normal curves that are tall and thin with only a few scores in the middle of the distribution having a high frequency
platykurtic normal curves that are short and relatively more dispersed (broader)
positively skewed distribution a distribution in which the peak is to the left of the center point and the tail extends toward the positive direction
negatively skewed distribution a distribution in which the peak is to the right of the center point and the tail extends in the negative direction
z-score (standard score) a number that indicates how many standard deviation units a raw score is from the mean of a distribution
standard normal distribution a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
probability the expected relative frequency of a particular outcome
percentile rank a score that indicated the percentage of people who scored at or below a given raw score Ex: iowa testing
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) the most commonly used correlation coefficient when both variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale Ex: height and weight ratio
coefficient of determination (r2) a measure of the proportion of the variance in one variable that is accounted for by another variable; calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient Ex: tells us how much of the variation in weight is accounted for in the variation of height
Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient the correlation coefficient used when one or more of the variables are measure on an ordinal scale
point-biserial correlation coefficient the correlation coefficient used when one of the variables is measured on a dichotomous nominal scale and the other is measured on an interval or ratio scale
phi coefficient the correlation coefficient used when both measured variables are dichotomous and nominal
regression analysis a procedure that allows us to predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing one or more other variables Ex: predicting SAT score based off of GPA
regression line the best-fitting straight line drawn through the center of a scatterplot that indicates the relationship between the variables
null hypothesis states that the independent variable has no effect and that there is no difference between the 2 groups Ex: Ho:uo=u1
alternative hypothesis states that the independent variable has an effect and that there is a difference between the 2 groups Ex: Ha: uo>u1
two-tailed test states that a difference is expected between the groups, but there is no prediction as to which groups will perform better or worse Ex: IQ scores in kids in after school programs and those that aren't
one-tailed test states that a difference is expected between the groups, and it is expected to occur in a specific direction Ex: kids in after school programs are smarted than those who aren's
type I error saying there is a difference between the groups when there isn't Ex: saying kids in after school programs are smarter when they aren't
type II error saying that there is not a difference between the groups when in reality there is Ex: saying kids in after school programs aren't smarter when they are
statistical significance the probability of a type I error is low (<.05)
parametric test a statistical test that involves making assumptions about estimates of population characteristics Ex: you know the mean and standard deviation (t test)
nonparametric test a statistical test that does not involve the use of any population parameters Ex: you don't know the mean or standard deviation
independent-groups t test a parametric inferential test for comparing sample means of two independent groups of score
standard error of the difference between means the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of differences between the means of independent samples in a two-sample experiment
degrees of freedom (df) the number of scores in a sample that are free to vary (based off of the participants) Ex: 76 (control)+ 26 (experimental)-2= 120
effect size the proportion of variance in a dependent variable that is accounted for by the manipulation of the independent variable Ex: cohen's d- the larger the effect size the better
Cohen's d an inferential statistic for measuring effect size Ex:small effect size is .20, medium is .50 and large is .80
Bonferroni adjustment setting a more stringent alpha level for multiple tests to minimize type I errors Ex: going form .05 to .01
ANOVA (analysis of variance) an inferential statistic test for comparing the means of three or more groups Ex: exercise for small amount, medium amount, and a lot and then measure stress
one-way randomized ANOVA compares the means for 3 or more groups using a between-participants design and one independent variable Ex: type of rehearsal- rote, story,and imagery
grand mean the mean performance across all participants in a study Ex: all of the results added together and divided by 3
error variance the amount of variability among the scores caused by chance or uncontrolled variables
within-groups variance the variance within each condition, an estimate of the population error variance
between-groups variance an estimate of the effect of the independent variable and the error variance
F-ratio the ratio of between-groups variance to within- groups variance
total sum of squares the sum of the squared deviations of each score from the grand mean
within-groups sum of squares the sum of the squared deviations of each score from its group mean
between-groups sum of squares the sum of the squared deviations of each group's mean from the grand mean, multiplied by the number of participants in each group
mean square an estimate of either variance between groups or variance within groups
eta-squared a measure of effect size; the variability in the dependent variable that is attributable to the independent variable
post hoc test a means of comparing all possible pairs of groups to determine which ones differ significantly from each other
Tukey's post hoc test a test conducted in order to determine which conditions in a study with more than 2 groups differ significantly from each other
Created by: maxief
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