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Chapter 9 Vocaab

This stack covers all the vocab in Chapter 9 of the Glencoe Psych textbook

QuestionAnswer
Classical Conditioning A learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training
Unconditioned Response (UR) An organism’s automatic reaction to a stimulus
Conditioned Response (CS) A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR) A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
Generalization Responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
Discrimination The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
Operant Conditioning Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
Reinforcement Stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Primary Reinforcer Stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
Secondary Reinforcer Stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer
Fixed-Ratio Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
Variable-Ratio Schedule A pattern of Reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement is obtained
Fixed-Interval Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement
Variable-Interval Schedule A pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
Shaping Technique in which the desired behavior is “molded” by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
Response Chain Learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
Aversive Control Process if influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
Negative Reinforcement Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Escape Conditioning Training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
Avoidance Conditioning Training of an organism to respond so as to prevent the occurrence of an unpleasant stimulus
Social Leaning process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Cognitive Learning Form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and m result from observation or imitation
Cognitive Map A mental picture of spatial relationships between events
Latent Learning Alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior
Learned Helplessness Condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
Modeling Learning by imitating others; copying behavior
Behavior Modification systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings
Token Economy Conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
Created by: sadams23