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Radiology 1030 Film

Describe the super coat layer and it's function Hard protective gelatin, protects emulsion from scratches
construction of the film base, adhesive, emulsion, supercoat
Explain the purpose of the gelatin Acts as a neutral lucent supspension for halisde crystals, suspends and separates crystals, elar to permit light to travel through
What are the qualities of good film base flexible, tough, rigid, uniformly lucent
What is adhesive used for Glue to emulsion to the base, prevents distortion
describe what emulsion is composed of gelatin adn silver halide crystals
what are the photosensitive agents suspended in the gelatin silver halide crystals
Types of single emulsion film mammo, fine detail, extremity, adn duplication film
Crystals are a maxtix of ehat atoms silver, bromide and iodine
Crystal lattice is bound together by which type of bond? ionic
what is the purpose of the sensitivity seck? electrodes o attract free silver ions during latent image
What type of film is sensitive to all types of colors? panchromatic
Know the latent image formation 1-bromide ion absorbs an incident photon and ejects an e-. the ejected e- is trapped in teh sensitivity speck and gives a neg charge. The - e- attacts a free silver ion. The silver ion neutralizes sensitivity speck and repeat.
Know which type of fim had the fastest speed. Faster film= larger crystal size and thicker emulsion
How should film be stored? On end, away form cleaning solutions, fromaldehyde, chemicals and chemical fumes.
Describe artifact any irregularity on an image that is not caused by the primary beam
What are the 3 areas where artifacts can occur exposure, processing, and handling
Give 3 examples of exposure artifacts pt motion, warped cassettes, double exposure
3 examples of processing artifacts pressure (darker/black), guide shoes marks, scrape(lighter/white)
How are processing artifacts eliminated proper film storage
Whar causes guide shoe marks? Guide shoes in turn around are sprung.
What are Pi lines occur at 3.14 intervals- caused by dirt or chemical stain
What kind of artifacts can dirty rollers cause? emulsion pick off, gelatin build up- sludge
What will chemical fog look like on the film rafioation fog, usually dull gray
what is a diachroic stain? yellow
Why are processing artifacts with Cr different than those with film? Cr is electrical rather than chemical
Describe the cause of wet-pressure sensation marks produced in teh developer tank, irregualr or diry rollers
What causes light or radiation fog temp or humidity is too high, white light leaks
What causes kink marks adn what does the film look like light before processing, dark after processing
what is the casue of static artifact on teh processed radiograph lightening bolt, crown, tree, smudge
List 5 types of handling and storage artifacts that occur with DR debris, discoloring, fogging, "ghost" image, bead
Whar causes hyporetention artifact and what does it look like too old of film- yellow/brown
True of false- The film is more sensitive to radiation, light, anc chemicals before exposure than after false, after exposure
True or false- when you take a radiolgraph trying to locate an object, it is not considered an artifact true
Why are intensifying screens used amplify incoming x-ray beams
What % of latent image is formed from light photons 99%
What percentage of the latent image is formed by x-ray photons 1%
Which type of film is uesed with intensifying screen double emulsion
Name the layers of intensifying screen base, reflecive, phosphor, protective
What is an important characteristic of the abse of an intensifying screen> tough and flexible
Whar does a phosphor in teh intensifying screen do when struck by an x-ray absorbs energy x-ray and emits light
what is the active layer in an intensifying screen phosphor layer
How can teh prtective layer be damaged nails and stains
what is the type of interactions between the x-ray photon and the phosphor compton and photoelectric
what is screen speed conversion efficemcy
What is spectral emmision match sensitivity of film, ensure max. latent image formation
Differances between phosphorescence and fluorescence Phospor- emit light after photon is disipated, Fluor- instantaneous
What is the delay in phosphorecent mission called Screen lag or after glow
How long if the life of the intensifying screen 5-7 yr
What is the atomic # range for rare earth phosphors 57-71
What is resolution adn what controls intensifying screen resolution 1-size of phosphor crystals, and thickness of layer. 2- concentration of crystals
How are crystals adn layer thickness related to both resoltion and screen speed 1-inversely related to resolution 2- directly related to screen speed
What is quantum mottle? graying, insufficient quantity of protons striking the screen
How is quantum mottle eliminated Increasing mAs
How is speed of an intensifying screen increased increase kvp
How should the cassette be stored on end, upright
What does poor screen/film contact produce decreased image density
Name the 4 steps of automatic processing developer, fixer, waher, dryer
Name all of the agents in the developer solution Reducing agent, activator, restrainer, preservative, hardener, solvent
What 3 things control the action of the developer immersion time, solution temp, and chemical activity
Describe what reducing agents do provides electron to silver ionattached to sensivity speck, converts black to metatlic silver
What is the function of the retrainer restrict the reducing agent
What is the funtion of the hardener conrols teh swelling of the gelatin
What is the funtion of the preservative decreases teh oxidation of reducing agent
What is the solvent? water
true or false- the developer is the only solution that is framitically affected bt contamination true
what will films that are in contaminated developer look like appear gray
what is the most common cause of developer contamination leaving the processor lid down- the fixer can drip into the developer
What is the promary agent in fixing clearing agent
what other agents are used in fixer activator, perservative, hardener adn solvent
Whar is the name of the clearing agent ammonium thiosulfate, removes undeveloped silver halide crysals
What is the function of the activator enahnces the clearing agent
What is the funtion of the preservative desolves silver for continual removal of emuldion
What is the function of the hardener prevents scratches and maintains a uniform thickness
What is the solvent water
Over time what can happen to the fixer and what can be done to correct if it is unable to accept additional silver, clear tank
What are the 2 steps of archiving? washing and drying
How long should films be stored 5-7 years
name the subsystems of the automatic processor transport, replenishment, temp regualtion, recirculation, dryer
What does the transport system do moves through all sections of the processor. Controls the length of time film is immersed in solutions
What does the transprt rack do moves film up and down out of solutions
What does the cross over rack do turns films into the next tank
What does the drive system do turns the rollers
What does the replinishing system do replaces depleated chemicals in developer and fixer
what deos the circulation system do stabilizes the solution temp, agitates the solutions, mixes replinishinment chemicals into tans
What does the temp control do maintains solution temp
90 sec processor temp is 92-96
List several silver recovery systems metallic, replacement, electorlytic, chemical precipitation, resin
What is senitomotry measurement of resposes of film to exposure and processing
What is a penetrometer Series of increased thickness absorbers- produces a step wedge. Made out of aluminium
What is a sensitometer expose a reproducable, uniform, optical wedge onto a film
What is a densitometer provides a reading of teh amount of blackening on a film
What is optical distense (OD) formula incident light/transmitted light
What does the horizontal axis represent log exposure
what does the veritcal axis represent density
What are the 5 parts of teh D log E curve base fog, toes, straight protion, shoulder, d max
Define base + fog desity with no exposure
Define the toe region of the curve. Controlled by phenidone *controls the subtle grays*
What is the staight portion Between the tow and shoulder, Film reacts in a linear fashion to exposure
What OD # fit in the straight line portion 0.5-1.25
What is the shoulder Heavy black tone- controlled by hyfroquinone
What is Dmax Film capible of recording the highest point of the D log E curve. All silver haides have a full complement of silver atoms and can't accept more
What 4 thins can be expressed by the D log E curve resolution, speed, contrast, latitude
What determines resolution on the curve ability to accurately image an object detail, sharpness, definition, adn resolving power
What is the relationship between resolution adn crystal size small crystal darkens small areas, Large crystals darken large areas. Inverse relationship exists between film resolution and crystal size
What is speed amount of density, blackening, a film produces for a given amount of exposure
What controls the speed of the curve the sctivity of phenidone becuase it affects the toe of the curve
What is the relationship of film speed to crystal size large crystal means a faster speed
What is contrast slope of the straigh line portion of the curve
A steep slope of the straight line will have ______ conrast increased
What is latitude range of exposured that will produce densities within the diagnostic range
How latitude and contrast are related inverely related, as contrast increases, latitude decreases
low contrast films will have _______ latitude increased
Created by: 638323941