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chapter 14 key words

abrasion scraping wound to the skin
acute having a short & relatively severe course
anatomic position the position in which the patient is standing erect with the face directed forward arms extended by the sides with the palms facing forward and the toes pointing anteriorly
anomaly congenital conditions that cause abnormal variations in the shape or form of a body part
articulation/joint places where bones are joined together
atrophy a wasting away; reduction in size of a tissue organ or part
benign not malignant, not recurrent favorable for recovery
cartilage tough fibrous tissue, connective tissue that is both flexible and stiff
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
chronic persisting over long period of time
congenital referring to conditions that are present at birth
contusion a bruise; an injury of a part that a break in blood vessel
degeneration deterioration or impairment of an organ or body part
diagnose process of identifying a disease
dislocation the movement of a bone from its normal location within a joint
edema the accumulation of excessive fluid in the subcutaneous
fracture bone injury in which the tissue of the bone is broken
gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary tract) a hollow tube that is open at both ends - food enters at the mouth until it is excreted as waste
hormone secretions from glands that are released directly into the blood stream rather than duct
iatrogenic diseases that occur as the results of treatment by health professionals
anatomy refers to the structure of the human body
physiology study of the function of the human body
idiopathic when the cause of the disease is unknown
infection exogenous disease caused by microbiologic agents
"hepat"- liver
anti- against
"ante-" before; in front of
"lith-" stone
"decub" recumbent; in radiology refers to patient in a recumbent position with a horizontal beam. Is named according the dependent surface.
"ectomy" surgical removal
"hyper-" above
"-osis" condition
inflammation the immunes system's response to cellular injury
ischemia deficiency of blood in a body part because of functional constriction or actual obstruction
laceration cuts or tears to the skin
lesion a circumscribed area of pathologic tissue; a sore
ligament flexible bands of fibrous tissue that bind joints together and provide connections between bones and cartilage
lymph fluid that surrounds the cells and serves to move fluid and certain large molecules from the cells to the circulatory system
malignant tending to become progressively worse and to result in death; said of tumors
metastasis a growth of pathogenic microorganisms of abnormal cells distant from the site primarily involved
microorganism a living organism too small to see with the naked human eye
neoplasm growth or tumor
nosocomial pertaining to or originating in a hospital as in nosocomial disease
pathology the study of disease which causes change in the structure or function of body tissue and organs
peripheral situated away from the center or central structure
prognosis prediction of the course of the disease and the prospect for the patient
projection indicates the path of the CR from the tube and through the patient to IR and is named using anatomic turns
sign objective manifestations that can be the examiner
sprain injury to the ligaments tendon and muscle that surround a joint
strain muscle damage from excessive physical effort or force
symptom patient's reported conception of the condition are subjective
syndrome a group of manifestations that taken together are typical of a specific condition
tendon bands of fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bones
trauma physical injury caused by an object
ulcer a crater like sore on the skin or a mucous membrane
vascular insufficiency lack of adequate blood flow
organelles tiny structures in the cell that perform the work of the cell
cortex the hard compact bone
spongy bone tissue that has a honeycomb or trabecular structure
medullary canal the spaces with in cancellous (spongy) bone contain marrow
marrow a fatty substance containing blood vessels and immature blood cells
joint cartilage covers the surface of bones that form moving joints
periosteum tough fibrous membrane that covers all bone surface except
diaphysis the long shaft of a long bone
metaphysis the flared portion of a long bone
epiphysis the rounded ends of a long bone that forms joints
epiphyseal plate (growth plate) center for bone growth; is made of cartilage early in life; when the bone is mature the growth plate ossifies
epiphyseal line the ossified growth plate
condyle a rounded process that forms part of a joint
coracoid a pointed projection
coronoid a beak like projection
crest a bony ridge
epicondyle a projection above a condyle
facet a small smooth process that forms of a joint
head the rounded wide end of a long bone
malleolus a club shaped projection
process/protuberence a general term for a projection
spine a sharp process or a sharp ridge
styloid a long sharp process
trochanter one of the large rounded processes of the femur
tubercle a small rounded process
tuberosity a rounded process larger than a tubercle although the terms are sometimes used interchangeabley
fissure/groove a linear depression, a groove
foramen a hole in a bone for the passage of blood vessels and nerves
fossa a pit or hollow
sinus a cavity or hollow space
sulcus a trench like depression; a deep fissure
synarthrosis joint that does not move
amphiarthrosis joint has very limited motion articular surfaces are covered by fibrous cartilages or cushioned by disks of fibrous cartilage
diarthrosis joints that can move freely; bones are shaped to fit together to accomplish required movement and articular surfaces are covered by articular cartilage. A fibrous capsule that is lined with synovial membrane surrounds the joint
synovial fluid Fluid within joints that provide moisture to lubricate the joint
bursa sacs filled with synovial fluid and cushion the movements of tendons or muscles
circumduction the ability to move in a circle
ball & socket joint end of one bone looks like a ball that fits into the socket of another bone
rotation the ability to turn on axis
angular motion the ability to move back and forth in one plane that is to bend
gliding motion occurs when one bone slides over another
abduct/abduction movement of an arm or leg away from the central part of the body
adduct/adduction movement of an arm or leg toward the central part of the body
evert/eversion turning outward
extended/extension straightening of a hinge joint backward; bending of the spine
flex/flexion bending of a hinge joint; decreasing the angle between the bones that make up the joint
invert/inversion turning inward
pronate/pronation turning of the arm so that the palm of the hand is down
supinate/supination turning of the arm so that the palm of the hand is up
anterior/vental forward or front portion of the body or body part
caudal/caudad away from the head
central pertaining to the middle area or main part of the organ or body part
cephalic/cephalad pertaining to the head; toward the head
distal away from the source or point of origin
dorsal/posterior pertaining to the back part or surface of the body part; the top surface of the foot or back of the hand
external to the outside at or near the surface of the body or body part
inferior below; farther from the head
internal deep, near the center of the body or body part
lateral referring to the side away from the center to the left or right
medial/mesial toward the center of the body or the center of a part
palmar referring to the palm (anterior surface) of the hand
parietal referring to the walls of a cavity
plantar referring to the sole of the foot
proximal toward the source or point of origin
superior above; toward the head
visceral pertaining to organs
hyperplasia increase in size of tissue or organs due to increase number of cells
hypertrophy refers to the increase in the cell size
endogenous internal disease
exogenous disease caused by external agent
necrosis death of tissue
infarct area of tissue that has undergone necrosis
deficiency any condition that compromises body function as a result of lack of required substance
"itis" inflammation
Created by: mdtodd