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Chap. 11 & 12

Introduction to Sociology

race a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
ethnicity a shared cultural heritage
minority any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
prejudice a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
stereotype a simplified description applied to every person in some category
racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
scapegoat a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles
discrimination unequal treatment of various categories of people
institutional prejudice and discrimination bias built into the operation of society's institutions
pluralism a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
assimilation the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
miscegenation biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
segregation the physical and social separation of categories of people
genocide the systematic killing of one category of people by another
social institution a major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs
economy the social that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
postindustrial economy a productive system based on service work and computer technology
primary sector the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
secondary sector the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
tertiary sector the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
global economy economic activity that crosses national borders
capitalism an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
socialism an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
welfare capitalism an economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
state capitalism an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but sooperate closely with the government
profession a prestigious white-collar occupation that requires extensive formal education
corporation an organization with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities, separate from that of its members
monopoly the domination of a market by a single producer
oligopoly the domination of a market by a few producers
politics the social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and makes decisions
power the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
government a formal organization that directs the political life of a society
authority power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
routinization of charisma the transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority
monarchy a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
democracy a political system that gives power to the people as a whole
authoritarianism a political system that denies the peoplr participation in government
totalitarianism a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives
welfare state a system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population
pluralist model an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups
power-elite model an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
Marxist political-economy model an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system
political revolution the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another
terrorism acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group
war organized, armed conflict among the people of two or more nations, directed by their governments
military-industrial complex the close associationof the federal government, the military, and defense industries
Created by: Shanti2
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