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Chapter 13 Rad Safet

QuestionAnswer
Absorbed dose (D) the amount of energy (x-rays) per unit mass absorbed by the irradiated tissue
ALARA principle a guiding philosophy that means “As Low As Reasonable Achievable” limited operators should always follow this philosophy when applying radiation to humans
Biologic damage the destructive interactions occur at the atomic level leading to cellular damage
Chromosome microscopic bodies that contain the genes
Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg) SI (Systeme International) SI unit for measuring radiation exposure in air
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains the coded information that the cell needs to function
Dominant gene genes that are chosen to make the offspring
Effective dose (EfD) this value is the limiting system used to calculate the upper limits of occupational exposure permissible
Entrance skin exposure (ESE) patient dose in radiography according to the exposure level at the skin mAs X D/mAs – mR (milliroengten)
Enzyme biologic chemicals that repair damage to cell membranes & DNA
Erythema a reddening of the skin, such as occurs after a large amount of radiation has been received (radiation burn)
Free radical temporary molecules and parts of molecules that occur as the result of ionization – may interact directly with DNA or may combine to produce toxic substances that are injurious to DNA
Gene determiners of heredity and are made of unique protein DNA
Gonad reproductive organs of humans
Cataractogenesis formation of cataracts
Gonad shield lead shields that is used for shielding of the reproductive organs
Gray (Gy) SI unit for absorbed dose; 1 Gy = 100 rad. The gray is determined by dividing the rad by 100
Ionizing radiation radiation that when passing through the body tissues produce positively or negatively charged particles
Mutation changes to the genes of reproductive cells
Carcinogenesis increase risk of malignant disease part
Nonstochastic effects of radiation that can be related directly to the dose received, more severe with higher dose, has a threshold below which the effect will not occur
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) personnel monitoring device with use of aluminum oxide as a radiation detector
radiation absorbed dose (RAD) conventional unit measuring the quantity of radiation absorbed in the tissue
Radiation protection measures taken to safeguard patients, personnel, & the public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
Recessive gene genes that are not selected
Rem radiation equivalent to man
Rem – (radiation equivalent to man) unit of occupational exposure (conventional)
Roentgen (R) the conventional unit of measuring the amount of radiation in air, measured before it is absorbed in the body
Sievert (Sv) the SI unit of measuring the effective radiation dose to a man
Source – skin distance (SSD) the distance from the radiation source to the patient. Determined by measuring part thickness in inches and subtracting this measurement from SID
Stochastic effects that occur on a random basis with its effect being independent of the size of dose. The agent must be encountered during gestation period; not predictable; long term effects
Thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) personnel dose measuring device that gives off light when heated
Teratogenic effects effects from radiation that are in the offspring of the individual who received the agent, must be encountered during the gestation period
Equivalent Dose (EqD) the absorbed dose multiplied by the radiation weighting factor.
Weighting (quality) factor a number assigned to each type of radiation basedon the variation in biologic damage that is produced when individual receives exposure from a difference source
Direct hit breakage of DNA molecule as a result of an interaction with an x-ray photon
Genetic effect effects from radiation that are in the offspring of the individual who received the agent, must be encounter preconception
Linear Energy Transfer (LET) the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue, expressed in terms of kiloelectron volts per micrometer
Relative Biologic Effectiveness (RBE) a measure of the cell-killing ability of a particular radiation compared with that of 250 keV x-rays
Threshold the point at which a stimulus (x-ray) is great enough to produce an effect
Nonthreshold no point at which there is no risk of an effect
Linear dose-response the response to radiation is directly proportional to dose
Nonlinear dose- response the observed effects of radiation exposure in relation to the radiation dose given
Indirect hit causes a chemical reaction in the water that makes up most of the cells substance creating a free radical
Created by: mdtodd