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Pathological ECG

Pathological changes in ECG (scorebuilders)

Depressed QRS Heart Failure, ischemia, pericardial effusion COPD
Ectopic Foci abnormal pacemaker sites w/in the heart (outside of the SA node) that display automaticity. Their pacemaker activity, however, is normally suppressed (overdrive suppression) by the higher rate of the SA node. They can occur within the atria or ventricles
Elevated QRS hypertrophy of the myocardium
Q wave previous myocardial infarction
ST segment Elevation acute MI
Atrial Fibrilation - Irregular atrial rhythm - No rate - No P waves - ‘F’ waves absent - Quivers noted - Ventricular rhythm varies
A-Fib causes HTN, CHF, CAD, rheumatic heart disease, cor pulmonale, pericarditis, and illegal drug use
Supraventricular Tachycardia - Rate varies b/w 160-250 BPM - Regular rhythm - Originates from a location above the AV node - Will start and stop w/o cause
Common causes of supraventricular tachycardia Mitral valve prolapse, cor pulmonale, digitalis toxicity and rheumatic heart disease
Premature atrial contractions (PAC) - Occurs when an ectopic focus in atrium fires & supercedes SA node - P wave is premature w/ abnormal configuration - Rate b/w 60-100 bpm - Irregular rhythm can be regularly irregular ie. consistently skipping every 3rd beat - ischemia or valve patho
Common causes of PAC Intake of caffeine, emotional stress, smoking, and pathologies such as CAD, electrolyte imbalance, infection and CHF
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) - Rate usually > 100 bpm - Rhythm usually regular - No P wave or appears after QRS complex w/ retrograde conduction - Requires immediate medical attention
Common causes of Ventricular Tachycardia Post MI, Rheumatic heart disease, CAD, and cardiomyopathy
Ventricular Fibrillation (V. FIb) - No regular rate or rhythm - EMERGENCY - Requires immediate medical intervention
Common causes of Ventricular Fibrilation Long term or severe Heart disease, post MI, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia
Multifocal ventricular tachycardia - Rate >150 bpm - Irregular rhythm - No P waves - QRS complex is wide - Requires immediate medical intervention
Common causes of multifocal ventricular tachycardia Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothermia, and drug-induced through antiarrhythmic medications
Premature Ventricular Contractions PVC Ectopic focus in the vetricles or Purkinje fibers fires and supercedes normal conduction - Rate b/w 60-100 bpm - P wave is absent - ST segment is distorted - QRS complex occurs early - Irregular rhythm that can be regularly irregular
Common Causes of Premature Ventricular COntractions Intake of caffeine, emotiona stress, stress, pathologies such as CAD, digitalis toxicity, cardiomyopathy and MI
Complete Heart Block (third degree AV block) - Regular rhythm - Atrial rate > ventricular rate - Requires immediate medical intervention (pacemaker)
Common causes of Complete Heart Block (third degree AV block) Infection, electrolyte imbalance, CAD, anteroseptal MI, and impairment with the AV conduction system
Asystole - No rhythm - Absence of P wave, QRS and T waves - Can have abrupt onset - Requires immediate medical attention
Common causes of Asystole Failure of all pacemakers to initiate, conduction system failure, acute MI and ventricular rupture
Created by: Sarann4