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Embalming QI:Final

Post-Mortem Physical and Chemical Changes

the art and science of disinfecting, temporarily preserving, and restoring to a normal appearance a dead human body embalming
the destruction or inhibition of pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body disinfection
chemical treatment of the body so as to delay the decomposition of the body for a limited amount of time temporary preservation
the care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color-to change the body back to amore normal appearance when the body has become unpleasant restoration
use of the circulatory system in the body, injection into an artery, drainage from a vein arterial embalming
direct chemical treatment other than by arterial embalming of the contents of the body cavities cavity embalming
injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues hypodermic embalming
direct contact of internal or external body surfaces or tissues with embalming chemicals surface/topical embalming
a cotton piece placed directly on the surface of the body and the appropriate chemical is applied-area is preserved by osmosis surface pack/cavity pack
cause the breakdown of proteins enzymes
a relationship based on trust fiduciary relationship
the study of death in all of its aspects thanatology
legal definition of death total cessation of brain function
a condition in which the heartbeat, respiration, body warmth, and other manifestations of life are very feebly maintained apparent death
the sound sometimes made by the dying caused by labored breathing through air passages partly filled by mucus death rattle
the semi-convulsive series of movements and facial twitches which may occur before death death struggle
that period of time immediately before death agonal period
bound for death moribund
at the edge of death-statements made at this time are held in great legal weight in articulo mortis
the body of a deceased person human remains
latin term for a dead body embalmed especially for medical observation cadaver
elements of a dead body after cremation cremated remains
ratio of the number of deaths over a given period of time to the population of a given area mortality rate/death rate
ratio of the number of specific cases of diseases over a given period of time to the population of a given area morbidity rate
the death of the whole organism-death of the human body as an autonomous self-sustaining biological unit somatic death
cessation of heartbeat and respiration, lasts 5 to 6 minutes, can be reversed clinical death
irrevocable death, follows clinical death biologic death
stage of death which commences upon the irreversible cessation of brain function biologic death
idea by Dr. Bichat, if one of the essential organs fail, the others fail within moments tripod of life
death originating in the heart syncope
death originating in the brain coma
death originating in the lungs asphyxia
the death of the individual cells of the body cellular death
cause of cellular death, absence of oxygen anoxia
antemortem cell death and their replacement by new cells of the same type necrobiosis
the pathological death of cells/tissues in a living body necrosis
sudden deaths of healthy people, cell death is slow
deaths due to chronic diseases, cell death is rapid
death of a young person, cell death is slow
cold environment, cell death is slow
deadly to cells cytotoxic
those sensible manifestations that indicate the absence of life in a human signs of death
the only reliable sign of death decomp
7 signs of death 1) cessation of heartbeat/respiration, 2) algor mortis, 3) livor mortis, 4) rigor mortis, 5) dehydration, 6) changes in the eye, 7) decomp
how does the eye change in death? eye clouds, cornea becomes milky, jelly of eye begins to evaporate
5 signs of decomp 1) green color (LRQuadrant), 2) skin slip, 3) purge, 4) gas buildup, 5) odor
any procedure used to prove a sign of death test for death
those tests for death for which medical instruments are necessary expert test
5 expert tests for death 1) stethoscope, 2) opthalmascope, 3) electroencephalograph, 4) electrocardiograph, 5) dye injection
those tests for death which do not require specific training inexpert tests
4 inexpert tests for death 1) heartbeat/respiration check, 2) ligature test, 3) ammonia injection, 4) pulse test
the lowering of the body temp just before death agonal algor
increase in body temp just before death agonal fever
a settling/moving of the blood to the dependent parts AM agonal hypostasis
AM clots/congealing of the blood agonal coagulation
AM blood vessels expanding to get more oxygen and nutrients agonal capillary expansion
AM increase moisture level agonal edema
AM drying out of the body agonal dehydration
AM bacteria that are normally in the intestines travel outward to find nutrients, immune system breaking down agonal translocation of bacteria
term used to describe the faces of the dying, used by Hippocrates facies hippocratica
those changes in the body from the molecular to the systemic level that take place after biologic death post-mortem changes
the passage of time btw biologic death and the start of the embalming process PM interval
those pm changes which involve a change in the location or physical form of a body chemical pm physical change
4 PM physical changes 1) algor mortis, 2) livor mortis, 3) dehydration, 4) increase in blood viscosity
those pm changes which involve an actual change of identity of chemicals pm chemical change
6 pm chemical changes 1) decomp, 2) change in pH, 3) rigor mortis, 4) PM stain, 5) PM caloricity, 6) hydrolysis
the PM adjustment of body to that of the surrounding medium algor mortis
only way for a body to release heat pm direct convection through the skin
rate at which liver loses heat for the first 3 hours pm? for every hour after that? until when? 4 degrees F / hour for the first 3 hours, 1.5 degrees F for every hour after that until environmental temp is reached
tall bodies cool_____ than short bodies slower
very young and very old cool _____ than those in prime of life faster
the pm reddish-blue discoloration of the body due to the hypostasis of blood (6 synonyms) 1) livor mortis, 2) PM lividity, 3) cadaveric ecchymosis, 4) cadaveric lividity, 5) passive congestion, 6) hypostatic congestion
the pm gravitation/settling of blood into the dependent parts hypostasis
the changes in the color of the skin due to loss of blood pigment pallor
is livor mortis intravascular or extravascular intravascular
the loss of moisture from the body tissues dehydration
extreme dehydration-causes shrivelling and blackening of the tissue desiccation
extreme rapid and complete desiccation mummification
4 factors that accelerate pm dehydration 1) refrigeration, 2) hypostasis of blood, 3) air currents, 4) agonal dehydration
the degree of thickness of a liquid viscosity
in a refrigerated environment, blood viscosity is _______, in a temp near 98.6, blood viscosity is ______ liquid, more viscous
temporary reduction in the viscosity of blood hypinosis
clot that forms the quickest, all blood elements in a homogenous, wet, soft clot, easily moveable by arterial injection red currant jelly clot/cruror clot
clot that forms when gravity separates white and red blood cells, form a white-grey clot chicken fat clot
clot most likely to stick to vessel walls, likely to form in R atrium of heart, difficult to remove white fibrin clot
chemical breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones decomposition
chemicals so simple they can no longer be broken down by normal means end products
decomp of proteins proteolysis
proteins breakdown into amino acids
amino acids break down into amines, CO2, H2O
amines (ptomaines) breakdwon into (4) putrescine, cadaverine, skatole, indole
hydrogen phosphide, N2, mercaptans, and ammona (and compounds) are examples of what? amine end products
most dangerous end product: ammonia
type of proteolysis cause by enzymatic breakdown of anaerobic bacteria, usually foul-smelling putrefaction
type of proteolysis caused by aerobic bacteria, usually not foul-smelling decay
sugars breakdown. what do they breakdown into? sacchrolysis, carbohydrates and organic acids CO2 and H2O
sacchrolysis also called _______, causes what adverse effect fermentation, gas distention
involving decomp of body fats, what are the end products lipolysis, fatty acids and glycerol
if a dead body is buried in direct contact with moist alkaline earth, the adipose tissue can be transformed into adipocere/grave wax
process of adipocere formation saponification
decomp of cells, self-destruction w/out bacterial influence autolysis
cell organelle responsible for autolysis lysosome
most saprophytic bacteria thrive in what temperature 99.5
decomp slows at temps above ______ and below _____ 120, 50
first and last organs to decomp 1) lining of larynx and trachea, 2) non-pregnant uterus
order of decomp of body tissues 1) liquid tissues, 2) soft tissues, 3) firm tissues, 4) hard tissues
blood and lymph fluid are considered ____ tissues liquid
special organ tissues that do the function of the organ parencyma
organ tissues are considered _____ tissues soft
stroma, muscles, tendons are considered _____ tissues firm
bones and cartilage are considered _____ tissues hard
order of decomp of body compounds 1) carbohydrates (sacchrolysis), 2) proteins (proteolysis), 3) fats (lipolysis), 4) firm proteins, 5) calcium compounds
law which describes the relative speed of decomp of an unembalmed body in air, water, or soil casper's law
ratio of decomp for air to water to soil 1:2:8
pH of a living body is considered slightly _____, pH of alkaline, 7.4
PM body pH turns acidic
PM stiffening of body muscles, both involuntary and voluntary rigor mortis
three stages of rigor 1) primary flaccidity, 2) onset, duration, termination, 3) secondary flaccidity
5 ways to break rigor bend, flex, rotate, massage, extend
rigor begins to appear between ___ and ____ hours after death 8, 20
rigor peaks at ____ hours after onset 12
rigor lasts from ____ to ____ hours after onset 10, 72
involuntary muscles around hair follicles contract, sign of rigor cutis anserina
cause of rigor decomp of ATP
optimum (for a quick onset and quick duration of rigor) temp 98-100 degrees
rigor is quicker in what age groups, rigor is slow onset and long duration in what age range infants and old people fast and brief, young people and healthy adults slow onset long duration
a poison that causes convulsions would have what effect on rigor accelerate
extreme muscular activity right before death would have what effect on rigor rapid onset, intense degree of stiffness, brief duration
a person with a lot of muscle mass at time of death will have what effect on rigor slow onset, great degree of rigidity, long duration
what is the order of appearance and disappearance of rigor mortis in the body parts? (9) 1) eyes/eyelids, 2) back of neck, 3) lower jaw, 4) face, 5) front of neck, 6) chest muscles, 7) arms, 8)trunk, 9) legs
permanent stiffening and coagulation of muscle tissue where tiss. are exposed to very high heat, mistaken for rigor heat stiffening
mistaken for rigor, refrigerated bodies at <40 degrees cold stiffening
in living bodies, mistaken for rigor, muscular rigidity that affects the whole body, person appears to be in a death-like coma, but not dead catalepsy
a phenomenon in which the last act of life is crystallized in death, mistaken for rigor cadaveric spasm
an extravascular blood discoloration, caused by hemolysis (decomp of red blood cells) PM stain
causes pm stain plasma filtration (plasma separating from blood, and blood seeping in intracellular spaces)
the rise in body temp immediately following somatic death pm caloricity
febrile diseases, muscle activity before death, AM disturbance of body heat mechanisms, and sudden deaths are all prone to pm caloricity
a breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances when one of the catalysts is water or the elements in water hydrolysis
the absorption of water or any liquid by any substance imbibition
decomp of a body surrounded by water maceration
example of maceration a fetus dead in utero
According to OSHA, must keep an MSDS for any solution with ___% or more of any hazardous chemical. 1%
According to OSHA, must keep an MSDS for any solution with ___% or more of any carcinogen. .01%
for proper prep room ventilation, you should have air pulled from the _____ level and fresh air filtered in from the _____ level air pulled from the floor level and fresh air filtered in from the ceiling level
Created by: amyziolkowski