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# 3S3X1 Block 3

### Manpower Block III study notes

What characteristic is symbolized by “X”? Independent Variable
What characteristic is symbolized by “Y”? Dependent Variable
In Manpower, what is the most common independent variable? Workload Factor (WLF)
Why is WLF manipulated? To see how it affects man-hours
True or False: The most common dependent variable used in Manpower is the WLF False-Man-hours
Independent variables are plotted on what? X-axis
Dependent variables are plotted on what? Y-axis
What is the intersection of the X and Y value? A Data Point
On a scatter diagram, the horizontal line is the ______ and the vertical line is the _________. X-axis and Y-axis
What symbol is used to show data series that appear more than once? A circle
Name the 4 types of relationships between variables? Positive/Direct, Negative/Inverse, Curvilinear and None
What are the two types of curvilinear relationships? Concave and Convex
If X increases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this? Positive/Direct
If X decreases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this? Negative/Inverse
When do data points on a scatter diagram have no relationship? When X and Y occur without influencing each other
What are the different types of strengths between variables? Strong, Weak and Unrelated
How do you determine if a variable relationship is strong? Data points will be strongly clustered about the mean
What types of variable relationships can be strong? Any type (positive, negative or curvilinear)
What is the strength of a scatter diagram that is loosely scattered about the mean? Weak
If a change in X may produce a change in Y, the relationship is ______ Weak
Why will a scatter plot show no correlation even though the variables are related? The data values are too close together
What are equations created to predict man-hours from workload factors? Models
What are the two main selection criteria for an equation? It must be realistic and economical
What makes an equation realistic? It must have a positive slope with no net loss of man-hours for an increase in workload
What is used to develop manpower standards? C&R
Where is the C&R equation published? In a manpower standard
What is a statistical process used to measure the strength and type of relationship between variables? C&R
What is manipulated to see “what happens”? Independent Variable
Why will C&R no prove that a cause and effect relationship exists between WLF and man-hours? because it is inferential
Correlation and Regression are two separate and distinct processes, but are ______ interrelated
What does Correlation measure? the strength and direction of the relationship between variables
What type of equation is used for manpower standards? Linear Bivariate
What is the most direct relationship between two variables? Linear equation
What is the linear bivariate equation? Yc=a + bX
What is the y-intercept in a linear bivariate equation? a
What is the slope in a linear bivariate equation? b
What does “Y” represent? The number of man-hours predicted by C&R given a WLF and number of man-hours currently used at the sample bases
What are the two coefficients in a linear equation? a and b
In developing manpower standards, a regression equation is created for what? Each WLF under study
What is Step 1 of C&R? Compute Summary Statistics
What is Step 2 of C&R? Estimate Summary Coefficients
True or False: The value of the coefficient “b” must always be positive True
True or False: The value of the intercept must always be positive False
What is Step 3 of C&R? Compute the Total Sum of Squares (TSS)
What is the formula for TSS? TSS=SSE + SSR
What measures the total variation in sample data? TSS
Which type of variation is unacceptable? SSE
What type of variation is unexplained by the regression equation? SSE
What type of variation is explained by the regression equation? SSR
Why is SSR explained variation? Because the variation among sample data occurs simply because the data was collected at different locations
What is the goal of SSR? For the value to be the greater proportion of the TSS value
Is there a go/no-go associated with Step 3 (TSS) of C&R? No
What is the go/no-go associated with Step 2 (summary coefficients) of C&R? the “b” value must be positive
What is the symbol for the standard error of the estimate? Syx
What measures how the data points are scattered about the regression line? Syx (standard error of the estimate)
Standard error is a measure of ________ __________ unexplained variation
What is the similarity between standard deviation and standard error? They are both absolute measures of dispersion
Coefficient of Determination is also known as ______ R2
What is a measure of explained variation? R2
What must the value of R2 be to be included in a manpower standard? Greater than or equal to 0.5
What allows comparison of the relative amounts of dispersion between sets of data? Coefficient of Variation
What is go/no-go for Coefficient of Variation? It must be less than or equal to .25
With C&R, what value takes precedence over all other values? Coefficient of Variation (V)
What are the two measurements of unexplained variation? Syx and V
What value is derived from the F table? Critical F (F*)
What is the proportion of explained variation to unexplained? F value
What is needed to obtain the critical F value from the F table? the degrees of freedom for SSR and SSE
If the F value is greater than the Critical F Value, the WLF equation ________ the test. passes
What determines if the sample’s proportion of explained to unexplained variation is significant enough so that one can make accurate predictions about the population man-hours? F Test
What are the two values that aid in C&R analysis, but are not part of the seven steps? Significance F and Coefficient of Correlation (R)
What measures the strength and direction of the relationship between X and Y? Coefficient of Correlation (R)
What is the go/no-go for Significance F? Must be less than .05
What is the go/no-go for R? must be greater than or equal to 0.7071
What is the first thing done after a good equation is created? Extrapolate
Extrapolation is only performed on the _________ ________ _________ Chosen WLF Equation
What is the maximum acceptable amount of extrapolation? 50%
What does extrapolation do? Extend the applicability of the standard
What equation form uses two or more independent variables? Multivariate Equation
What equation represents a curvilinear relationship? Parabolic Equation
How do you determine the best equation for a manpower standard after it passes the six tests? Use the equation with the highest V value
How many different tests must an equation pass to be eligible for a manpower standard? 6
What are the six tests a manpower equation has to pass to be eligible for a standard? (1)b must be positive, (2)R2 must be > or equal to 0.5, (3)R must be > than or equal to 0.7071, (4)Sig F must be < than 0.05, (5)V must be > than or equal to 0.25, and (6)equation must pass the F test
What would you do with a parabolic equation that has a concave curve? Stop because you can’t use a concave curve in a manpower standard
What is a means of assigning authorized spaces to a work center? A Manpower Standard
What is a driver of workload? A WLF
What are man-hours? The time spend performing work
What predicts man-hours? WLF
If a function is particular to one location, what is appropriate? A Single Location Standard
How do single location standards further break down direct and indirect man-hours? Variable and fixed man-hours
What type of man-hours are directly related to WLFs? Variable
What type of man-hours are unrelated to WLFs? Fixed
What are man-hours related to tasks that are common to almost every work center? Standard Indirect Allowed Man-hours (SIAMs)
What is the equation for a single location standard? Y=a + b1X1 + b2X2……bnXn + SIAM
In a single location standard equation, what does Y represent? the sum of all applicable man hours
In a single location standard equation, what does a represent? the sum of fixed measured man-hours
In a single location standard equation, what does b represent? the direct man-hours needed to produce one unit of work
What is SIAM in a single location standard equation? the sum of all the indirect work man-hours
What is the value of the workload factor in a single location standard equation? X
When determining b in a single location equation, the appropriate ratio has _________ __________in the numerator and _______ ________ in the denominator. Variable Man-hours and WLF count
True or False: Skill and grade determination must not be affected by external constraints, but can be affected by funding limitations. False (not affected by either)
When are grades and skills initially analyzed? Study Planning Phase
When are grades and skills incorporated into manpower tables? Data Analysis and Computation
What are the two methods for determining skills and grades? C&R and non-C&R
True or False: C&R and non-C&R are the only two methods for determining grades and skills False, there are several different methods
If you decide to use another method besides C&R or non-C&R, what must you do? Document the method and its data source in the final report
How many grades per skill policy are grade and skill analysis based on? 2
What are the two 9 level grades on a manpower table? CMSgt and SMSgt
What are the percentages of the 9 level grades on a manpower table? CMSgt is 33% and SMSgt is 67%
What are the two 7 level grades on a manpower table? MSgt and TSgt
On a manpower table, the percentage ratio for 7 levels should be? MSgt 40% and TSgt 60%
True or False: 5 level percentage ratio is equally divided between SSgt’s and SrA’s True (50/50)
What is the easiest method used to build a manpower table? non-C&R
Who decides what percentage of work is done by what skill level at an input location? base-level functional OPR (supervisor, NCOIC)
How are manpower requirements calculated for a manpower table using the non-C&R method? by dividing the upper and lower extrapolated limits by the MAF * OLF
What happens when a grade inversion occurs? the number for a particular grade and skill level decrease when compared to the previous column in the table
What form is used in creating a manpower table? AF Form 1113
Using the C&R method of grade and skill determination, who determines the grade and skill percentages? AF Functional OPR
What grades and skill levels are listed on a MANTAB? Required grades and skill levels
True or False: A civilian grade will be used on a MANTAB from a workcenter with six civilians and a military manager. True
What concept is used in determining what skill levels are needed? the concept that workers should spend majority of their time performing at their highest skill level
How many steps are used in the C&R method of developing a MANTAB? 12
What AFI is used to verify OPR justification when a colonel requirement or position is identified? AFI 38-201
What must be done if conditions fall outside of those listed in the Statement of Conditions? A variance
What are the three types of variances? Mission, Environmental and Technological
What is a positive variance? A variance that adds man-hours to a location
What is a negative variance? A variance that subtracts man-hours to a location
When do MAJCOMs receive their first opportunity to identify variances? During coordination of the POD or workshop
Other than during POD coordination or the workshop, when can MAJCOMs identify variances? During the five day review or after the standard is published
When a variance is identified, what must be completed? An AF Form 1068
Where do installation manpower offices send the AF Form 1068? MAJCOM
Potential variances must do what to be considered for development? exceed 25 man-hours
Where does MAJCOM send the AF Form 1068? to the AF Functional OPR
True or False: MAJCOM must send all variances to the AF Functional OPR False, only supported variances are sent up the chain
What are the two things the AF Functional OPR decides upon receiving a potential variance from a MAJCOM? Whether the variance is or is not covered in an AF core standard and whether it’s applicable to another MAJCOM
If a variance is only applicable to the requesting MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do? comment on its merit and tell the MAJCOM whether or not to proceed with variance development
If a variance is applicable to more than one MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do? send the variance to AFMA for development
Who does AFMA send variances to for approval? Air Staff OPR
When is an AF Form 1068 for a positive variance submitted for review? when man-hours are quantified
What is the formula for computing negative variance man-hours? y=bX
If a function is not performing an entire process, what should be done? A Negative Variance
Preferrably, when is the y=bX method used? when the man-hours originally credited to the work center by the core standard are unknown
What type of variance would you create for mobility, deployment and war plan exercises? Wartime Variance
What are the three categories of credit for wartime variances? Will give, can give and will not
What are two types of standards application processes? Initial application and reapplication
How much time is given to implement new AF Manpower Standards? within 90 calendar days of receipt
What is the standard effective date after coding manpower requirements? 3 Fiscal Quarters (current plus two)
When are manpower requirement decreases effective? immediately
Unless directed by HQ USAF, what must MAJCOMS do with authorizations saved from implementation of AFMSs? retain and reinvest
Where do you forward all requests for additional manpower resources? HQ USAF/A1M
When are AFMSs reapplied? when mission changes, significant base population changes, or when directed by MAJCOM CCs
How many authorizations must be affected to warrant a AFMS reapplication for base population? 100
How do MAJCOM’s fund increased requirements? Funding/Authorizations is taking from other bases within the MAJCOM
True/False: Each manpower standard has unique application instructions. True
True/False: Normal rounding rules apply to every AFMS application. False
True/False: All variances within a standard will apply at every location. False
What other name is the study report known by? Final report
What is a detailed document that is produced by the lead team at the end of the study to document various aspects of the study effort? Study Report
What is the foundation for publication of an AFMS? Study Report
What are the three major parts of a study report? Introduction, Manpower Standard, and Data Analysis and Computations Summary
True or False: A quality assurance review is required for every study report. False (only recommended)
What five items are included on the cover page of a study report? typ of study report, functional area covered w/ FAC, whether it is a peacetime, wartime or combination study, who conducted the study and date of study
What items are included in the table of contents of a study report? introduction, manpower standard, data analysis and computation and attachments
Which part of a study report contains the Developmental Locations, Development Methods and Study Period? Part One--Introduction
Which part of a study report contains the Data Collection and Data Analysis information? Part Three—Data Analysis and Computation Summary
Which part of study report contains the Manpower Standard? Part Two—Manpower Standard
Which part of a study report contains the POD, SOC and WLF? Part Two—Manpower Standard
Where would you find variance impacts in a study report? Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 3
Where would you find process analysis Summary Data in a study report? Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 4
What is the beginning and ending date of each phase of study? Study Period
What information about the study participants must be included in a study report? Office Symbol, DSN number and specific functional area
What must be given for all reference documents used in a study report? the dates of the documents
Where do you cite the work measurement method used for a study report? In the development method stated in part one---introduction
Where in a study report would you identify any work centers that were not measured at a given location? in development locations stated in part one---introduction
What presents a standard for final coordination, validation, approval, application, and publication as a departmental or command document? Formatting
Where should the FAC appear on a manpower standard? at the top right corner
What always precedes the FAC on a manpower standard? the letters AFMS
Where is the title located on a manpower standard? in the middle of the page, directly below the heading
How do you designate a AFMS that is specifically for a certain MAJCOM or base? the appropriate MAJCOM designation or base name is added after the title
What should you try to do when preparing a mission statement on a AFMS? limit the statement to five typed lines
What is a series of broad statements that define the mission support capabilities of each subordinate element? A Responsibility Statement
What should a responsibility statement in an AFMS encompass? the major processes or work activities performed in support of the flight
When is a responsibility statement not required? when a flight has no subordinate elements
Where would you identify the environment that a function operates in an AFMS? In the applicability section of the AFMS
What must be specifically addressed in the applicability section of an AFMS? the applicability statement, specific applicability to ANG and AFR units,
Created by: russum