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Manpower Block II

Manpower Apprentice Course Block II Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
What is an Air Force Standard? A standard is the means of assigning authorized spaces to a work center so the required number of Air Force members can be employed.
In Manpower we have three types of Manpower standards, what are they? Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS) / MAJCOM Standard / Single Location Standard
Define Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS A standard that applies to more than one MAJCOM
Define MAJCOM Standard A standard that applies to one MAJCOM
Define Single Location Standard A standard that applies to only one function which exists at a single location
The development if a manpower standard is composed of four phases. What are they? Study Planning / Measurement Design / Data Analysis Computation / Implementation
What are the three (3) essential items are produced during the Study Planning phase? Process Oriented Description (POD) / Statement of Condition (SOC) and the Potential Workload Factors (PWLFs)
True or False The Manpower community helps the functional community build the Process Oriented Description (POD) / Statement of Condition (SOC) and the Potential Workload Factors (PWLFs)? True
What are the four (4) primary measurement methods that can be used during the Measurement Design phase? Operational Audit (OA) / Work Sampling / Time Study / Combination of any of the above
What does the Manpower community want to determine during the Data Analysis and Computation phase of the Manpower Requirements Determination Process? They will determine if there is a strong relationship between the man-hours and the workload for the bases that were measured during the Measurement Design phase.
What is the end result of the Data Analysis and Computation phase? The end result is an equation is developed that each base can use (during the implantation phase) to determine the number of requirements they earn.
During what phase is the Manpower Table defined and what does it define? The Data Analysis and Computation / The correct grades and skill levels to accomplish their mission.
What is the bottom line purpose of an standard? To determine manpower requirements and to provide our legislative branch in Congress the rationale for why we need more or less funding for authorizations in the United States (US) Air Force.
During the Implementation phase of the Manpower Requirements Determination Process who is responsible for determining for each of the bases that are under study whether they gain or lose authorization? Each MAJCOM Manpower Requirements section
During which phase is the SOC developed? Study Planning Phase
During which phase is the Manpower Table developed? Data Analysis and Computation Phase
What type of standard would apply to both AETC and ACC? Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS)
What type of standard would apply just to Air Mobility Command (AMC)? MAJCOM Manpower Standard
During which phase would you perform an operation audit? Measurement Design Phase
During which phase would you determine whether a particular base or command lost authorizations? Implementation Phase
What is determine when you develop a manpower standard? Manpower Requirement
What is the most important part of any manpower study? Familiarization
What does Familiarization do? It sets the stage for the success of subsequent steps.
What are the six (6) step to conducting Familiarization? Review Mission Directives/historical Documentation / Do Not Forget / Prepare for/and Conduct Site Visits / Inform the Work Center of Upcoming Visits / Make Initial Contacts
During the Familiarization function who would you contact to request wartime/contingency requirement information? MAJCOM/A1M
What will serve as the straw man Process Oriented Description (POD) building blocks? Your site visit / information gathered from reading the functions’ AFIs / AFMS reports / historical documentation
Name the seven (7) steps in the Seven Step Model. Project Definition / Plan / AS-IS / Opportunity Research / To-Be / Coordination and Approval / Implementation
In first step of the Seven Step Model, Project Definition is defined as what? Two way communication between the AFMA team and the functional team.
During what step of the Seven Step Model is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) built? Project Definition
Why conduct the Plan Step? The plan step develops your step-by-step approach to accomplish the agreed upon goals and required deliverables.
As a minimum what will be included in Project Plan? Signed MOA / AFMA and functional team composition workshop dates, and explanation of workload measurement techniques selected and why, workload data collection techniques, timeline/milestones, logistics requirements.
What does the As-Is step allow you to illustrate? It allows you to illustrate to the AF Force Corporate Structure the “starting point” of the study with respects to the manpower and/or dollar cost (by process) associated with the function being reengineered.
The AS-IS step normally accomplished four (4) goals. What are they? Develops and/or refines the straw man Process-Oriented Description (POD) / Measures the associated AS-IS required workload / identifies/specifies additional initiatives for staffing / identifies high cost/high value process for more in-depth application
What does Opportunity Research provide? Opportunity Research provides a systematic way to identify processes to improve and research methodology to search for ideas for improvement.
What is the goal of Opportunity Research? To find more effective and/or efficient ways to do business.
What are the three (3) steps used to identify which processes to focus improvement on and how to systematically research improvements? Identify “Target” processes through value/cost assessment / Research change opportunities for “target” processes / Build initiative plans/staffing packages
What will become the function’s two (2) most obvious improvement target and why? High cost/high value and high cost/low value, because these values can be good indicators for improvement
What is the most important part of the Research Change Opportunity for “Target” Processes? The IMPORTANT THING to remember here is DOCUMENTATION.
What does the TO-BE step do? The TO-BE step implements all accepted (short-term) initiatives in to the work center.
True or False During the TO-BE step you build a To-Be POD to display the new processes and have the workshop attendees go through the value/cost activities again. True
Defining the changes to manpower requirements resulting from the improvement initiatives is done during which step of the Seven (7) Step Model? TO-BE
During the Coordination and Approval step of the Seven (7) Step Model who are the three primary bodies interested in the outcome of your study? Functional Community / Manpower Community / Air Force Corporate Structure
Define the implementation step of the Seven (7) Step Model. The implementation of the new manpower determinant is the new requirement and associated manpower “laid-in.” Implementation is the act that actually “moves” manpower to the appropriate place.
In which step would you explain to the client the specific APPG requirements? Step 1-Project Design
Who are the three main bodies that are interested in the outcome of the study? Functional Community / Manpower Community / Air Force Corporate Structure
Which step would determine the cost per POD process? Step 3-AS-IS
In which step will you find all the processes laid out on a value/cost table? Step 4-Opportunity Research
When is the straw man POD initially developed? Familiarization
Who prices out and publishes the new manpower determinate? In step 7-Implementation phase AFMA AFMA accomplished the final price-out.
What provides a systematic way to identify processes to improve and research methodology to search for ideas for improvement? Step 4-Oppurtunity Research
What is the goal of opportunity research? Identify processes to improve through a simple value/cost analysis
In which step would the Memorandum of Agreement be built? Step 1-Project Definition
As a minimum, what items does a Project Plan contain? Signed MOA / AFMA and functional team composition workshop dates, and explanation of workload measurement techniques selected and why, workload data collection techniques, timeline/milestones, logistics requirements.
Define a Man-Hour Availability Factor (MAF). The MAF is the average number of nam-hours per month an assigned individual is available to perform primary duties
Why does the Air Force use a MAF? It is used to convert monthly measured man-hours to fractional manpower requirements.
True or False A fractional manpower hour is rounded appropriately to determine whole manpower requirements? True
Assigned Time equals what two (2) time classifications? Available Time / Nonavailable Time
Nonavailable time consists of those assigned man-hours allowed to participate in what five (5) Air Force directed , recognized and approved activity? Leave / PCS related / Medical / Organizational Duties / Educational & Training
Available time consists of two (2) types of time, what are they? Productive Time / Nonproductive Time
Productive time contains both direct and indirect work contained in the_________? POD
What two types of work are contained in Productive Time? Direct Work / Indirect Work
Identify the four (4) types of work contained in Nonproductive time. Personal, rest, and unavoidable delay (PR&D) / Stand-by time / Idle time / On-call time
Define PR&R. Nonproductive time needed by the worker to take care of personal needs, such as getting drinks of water or making trips to the rest room.
Define Standby time. Time spent in ready status to do work, but for which no work is available.
Define Idle time. includes time spent by a worker either in an avoidable delay status or doing unnecessary work when required work is available.
Define On-Call time. Includes time spent by a worker, not at the work center, but available to come in if requested. (Do not give credit for time spent in on-call status)
There are three (3) other types of work, what are they? Inferred work / Assumed work / Overtime
What two (2) types of time are contained in Inferred work?- Borrowed time / Loaned time
True or False Assumed work is not in anyone’s POD yet takes up the work center’s time. True
Is manpower credit given for assumed work? No
Why does the Air Force use the Overload Factor (OLF)? To ensure the effective use of Air Force manpower resources.
Always round fractional manpower requirements to _______________ when using the overload factor (OLF). the next whole number
Do you know the formula to transform total monthly man hours into the number of requirements necessary to perform the work ? If so, what is it? Rqmts equal Total Monthly Man-hours (TMMH) divided by Man-hour availability factor (MAF) X overload factor (OLF)
What is the POD? The POD is a full description of all processes that are the responsibility of the work center.
The POD is the basic building block of a standard and is written to facilitate the work of which three (3) things? Measurement / Data Analysis / Computations
The process is a_______________________________. series of value added, sequential steps that lead to a desired output.
The POD only includes what type of time? Productive time (both MAJCOM direct and indirect work)
Give an examples of where “Flying Requirement and “Clean up” would be coded as direct and then examples where they would be coded as indirect. A mission pilot is coded direct, where as the wing commander would be coded indirect. Sweeping your office space would be indirect, where as a CE worker cleaning up after a job would be direct.
When formatting the POD the Process titles will be formatted how? Noun form or adjective follweed by a noun form-example: 1. Authorization Change Request (ACR) Analysis
When formatting the POD the Step titles will be formatted how? In single unit form with verbs in third person singular. Example-Types letter / Inspects facility / Prepares report # 1 / Attends meeting
What is the State of Condition (SOC)? It is a narrative description of conditions such as these, which affect the way work is done in a work center and which impact manpower requirements. (The purpose of the SOC is communicate environmental conditions, travel distances, standards of living a
What are the three (3) types of Statement of Conditions (SOC)? Climatic Conditions / Physical Conditions / Directed Performance Standards
A ________________is a driver of the workload; ___________________are the rime spent performing work. workload factor (WLF) / man-hours
Identifying Potential Workload Factors (PWLF) begins with work unit (WU) identification during what phase? Study planning phase
Work Units (WU) are____________________? the quantifiable outputs of work activities or processes
Can a Work Unit (WU) be a Potential Workload Factor (PWLF)? Sometimes the answer is yes, other times the answer if no.
If the function being studied _______ control the WU quantity/volume, then the WU CAN be a PWLF. CANNOT
If the function being studied _____ control the WU quantity/volume, then the WU CANNOT be a PWLF. CAN
What are the two characteristics of a Workload Factor (WLF)? Relatability / Predictability
Of the two (2) characteristics of a Workload Factor (WLF) which is the most important and why? Relatability is the most important because if the workload factor does not relate to the man-hours, then it is impossible to develop a manpower standard with reliable predictability.
How do you format the “Title” of Workload Factor (WLF)? Identify briefly what is to be counted. Express in singular unit form. Example-A Customer Serviced, # of authorized personnel, etc…
How do you format the “Definition” of Workload Factor (WLF)? Precisely define the count and state what is to be included in or excluded from the count.
How do you format the “Source” of Workload Factor (WLF)? Identify the source from which the count is to be obtained.
What are the four (4) primary workload measurements methods? Operational Audit (OA) / Work Sampling (WS) / Time Study / Minimum Manpower
Of the four (4) primary workload measurements methods which one is most flexible? Operational Audit (OA)
The four (4) primary workload measurements methods are used to obtain two things, what are they? Per accomplishment ( ti ) / Activity frequency (fi)
Operational Audit (OA) employs four (4) major measuring techniques, what are they? Historical Records / Technical Estimate / Good Operator Timing / Directed Requirement
Time study is a work measurement method that records__________________________________? the time a worker takes to do each element of an operation.
Time study is used primarily to measure what three (3) types of operations? Operations that are repetitive, of short duration and done at one workstation.
Work Sampling (WS) is most effective when work centers have non-repetitive or irregular work / many different processes of work / many workers in a relatively small area
Work Sampling (WS) is NOT effective when work centers require product analysis / closed-session counseling / creative thinking / non-cyclical work or work completed over a long period of time / variable work cycles due to many different products
Conducting Work Sampling (WS) on a work center with five or more workers makes a Work Sampling (WS) study ______________desirable. economical
The minimum amount of manpower required to perform the work when it occurs is called___________. Minimum Manpower
Give some examples of work centers that would use Minimum Manpower. Firefighters / security forces / emergency room staff
What does Operational Audit measure? per accomplishment time (ti) required to accomplish a task / the frequency (fi)
The Per Accomplishment Time (PAT-ti) is always calculated in ______________. minutes
Where are (fi) and (ti) recorded? AF Form 1040 or spreadsheet equivalent (preferable)
What is the formula to convert Time (T) {T (fi) X (ti)} to monthly man-hours?
When using Historical Records Techniques what historical records are good to confirm are (fi) and (ti)? reports / letters / messages /rosters
Historical records techniques is very useful when evaluating _______________? work counts (frequency -fi)
True or False Use PATs from historical records only if the method of recording and reporting had been thoroughly checked and validated. True
Directed Requirement Technique method captures frequencies or PATs that are required by________ or _______. directive / policy
Good Operator Timing Technique is used to establish frequency - (fi) and/or per accomplishment time - (ti) per accomplishment time - (ti)
What measurement technique do you apply the Personal, Rest, and Unavoidable Delay (PR&D) allowance factor to? Good Operator Timing technique
There are four (4) Technical Estimate Methods, what are they? Average / Weighted PAT (WPAT) / 1-4-1 (OMP) / Crew Size
Of the four (4) Technical Estimate Methods which is the most precise? Weighted PAT (WPAT)
True or False Crew Size method must be used in combination with some other meth, which will be used to determine the time required to complete the task. True
To determine Conversion Factor (CF) you need to keep two (2) things in mind, what are they? The natural task frequency (daily, weekly, etc) / work center operating schedule (such as 5 days per week, excluding weekends and holidays)
The process flowchart is a _________________ representation of all the major steps in a process. graphic
Work samplings (WS) is based on the principle that____________ taken from a ______________ tend to keep the same __________ as the population. random samples / population / distribution characteristics
Work Samplings (WS) level I studies are measured at the _____________ level. category
Level I samples are broadly classified as __________, _______________, ___________ and ______ productive / nonproductive / Nonavailable / lunch
Work Samplings (WS) level II studies are measured at the _____________ level. process
True or False The distinction between productive direct and productive indirect is more difficult. True
What is the minimum sampling period of usable days? 15
What are the three (3) types of observation schedules? Random location schedule / Random/Stratified Schedule / Random Schedule
What is the minimum number of total samplings in each work center during Work sampling (WS). 1285
A minimum of 1285 samplings ensures a minimum of _______ samples are available samples. This is done by assuming that ______ of the sample taken will be Nonavailable. 1111 / 13.5%
Daily Work Sampling (WS) observation data are considered sensitive information and are ______ releasable by name. not
For computational purposes, the man-hour population excludes or includes Nonavailable time, although it is still sampled. excludes
What is the first step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 1 Determine Total Productive Samples (TPS). Total samples of time spend performing Direct and Indirect work
What is the second step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 2 Determine Sample Time Value (STV) Determine STV by dividing 1 hour by the number of rounds taken per hour to obtain a decimal value. Example-1 (hr)/3 (rounds) equals .3333
What is the third step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 3 Determine Measured Man-Hours by multiplying STV (from step 2) by the TSP (from step 1) example .3333 X 1500 equals 499.95
What is the fourth step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 4 Determine Monthly Man-Hours (MMH) This is a two step process. Step a- Determine adjustment factor by dividing the conversion factor (CF) by the number of usable days in the Work Sampling (WS). Step b-Multiply the adjustment factor by the measure
What is the fifth step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 5 Calculate PR&D Factor divide the number of minutes in a work day by the minutes in a day, minus the PR&D minutes example 480/450 equals 1.067
What is the sixth step of Work Sampling (WS) calculations? Step 6 Determine Total Monthly Man Hours (TMMH) by multiplying the PR&D factor by the monthly man-hours (MMH). Then you determine requirements by dividing the TMMH by the MAF-OLF and rounding
The process of Work Sampling (WS) data control charting produces two types of control charts, what are they? Productivity Charts / Workload factor charts
What are the two basic ways of reading a watch when doing a time study? Snapback / Continues
What type of equipment is used when your timing method is the Snapback Method? Decimal minute watch
What type of equipment is used when your timing method is the Continuous Method? Decimal hour watch
What does a control chart do? It shows how a process varies over time.
When is a process said to be “in statistical control”? When the process data show stability (points do not fall outside upper/lower control limits).
Each type of control chart has an both an _______________ and _____________ defined as three standard deviations (S) above and below the mean (+ 3S). upper control limit (UCL) / lower control limit (LCL)
Upper and lower control limits are calculated on actual _________ / ___________ data collected. mathematical / statistical
Does the data point falling outside a control limit always indicate the need for emergency action? No
What are the two circumstances that cause an unexpected variation? Common Cause / Assigned Cause
Sources such as error or random fluctuation, which are inherent to the process and cause the predicted variation about the mean of the sample is the definition of which cause? Common Cause
Forces, external to the process or the population, that caused unperdicatable variation from the mean; assignable causes contributes to data points falling outside control limits is the definition of which cause? Assignable
Should you look at Common or Assignable Cause first and why? Assignable, because they can be identified and possibly controlled.
What does the P-Chart measure? The mean percentage of productive working time sample.
The attribute data is work, and it is either _______________ or _______________. productive or non-productive
Process capabilities ratios relates customers requirements to ______________ _________________. actual performance
Control Charts measure_____________________. the stability of a process over time.
Process capability ratios relate the variability of a process to_________________________. the actual specification and tolerance requirements.
A process with a Cp > 1.o is considered_______________. capable
If Cp is less than one, the requirements will be met less frequently, because_______________________ the control limits, or the variability of the process is larger than the range between the customer specification limits.
Write the Capability Ratio (Cp) of the process. ____________________
Centering is determined by computing the performance index. Write the formula to determine this ___________
What does Minimum Manpower do? It defines the minimum amount of manpower required to perform the work when it occurs.
Within the Minimum Manpower measurement method define Stand by. Exist when the worker is required to be present to do time-sensitive work, and is in ready status to perform this work, but no work is available.
Within the Minimum Manpower measurement method define Unavoidable delay. Is similar to standby time but is often unexpected and normally doesn’t involve time-sensitive activities
Within the Minimum Manpower measurement method define On-call time. Time that a worker is not required to be in the work center but might be called in at anytime.
Management ______________ often produce minimum manpower levels that drive standby time. decisions
Within the Minimum Manpower measurement Contributing Factors can be, but not limited to what? Mission needs, performance standards, machine design, crew size, safety, facility limitations, hours of operation, shift size and necessity, post manpower requirements, security
What is the Minimum Manpower equation? (hrs a day )X(days a wk)X(wks a mth{CF}X(DRF)X(crew size) divided by MAF X OLF
What is the Direct Requirement Factor (DRF)? The DRF is a constant man-hour requirement which gives man-hour credit for required work and training necessary to support the post but done during times other than post duty hours.
What is the DRF Equation? MAF divided by MAF-training time (T)
Express the DRF to ____ decimals places. 3
When do you round MMFs? Total all Minimum Manpower Factors (MMF) together and then round once, this equals your Minimum Manpower (MM) requirement
When a shift profile chart of the as-is data is complete who helps the technician analyze the data to identify and minimize standby time? The functional OPR
In the Shift Profile chart identify the work as ___________ or ___________________. transferable or nontransferable
Any adjustment to existing standby times should be coordinated with the _________ _____. local OPR
The establishment of aircrew ratios for new aircraft are submitted through the appropriate_______ MAJCOM to HQ USAF/A8P
Regardless of method of establishment (aircrew ratio, manpower standard, or other determinant), each aircrew manpower authorization requires ________ with the A1M from the appropriate_________________ and HQ USAF/A3O. MAJCOM/direct reporting unit (DRU)/field operating agency (FOA) / approval
Define Aircrew Complement. The number of officer and/or enlisted aircrew members by AFSC, such as 2 pilots, 2 loadmasters.
Define Aircrew Composition. The total number of officer and enlisted members under aircrew complement that are required to operate an aircraft and to complete an assigned mission.
Define Crew Ratio. Crew ratio is defined as the funded number of crews required to support the unit mission, based on the particular aircrew complement, for each Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory (PMAI).
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