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Chapter 5

Integumentary System The skin and all its associated structures
Epidermis The outermost portion of the skin, and is composed entirely of epithelial cells and contains no blood vessels
What type of tissue is the epidermis? Stratified Squamous Tissue
Strata The thin layers of the epidermis
Stratum Basale The deepest layer of the epidermis that produces new epidermal cells through the process of mitosis.
What is another name of the "stratum basale"? Stratum Germinativum
Keratin A protein that thickens and protects the skin. It also makes up the hair and nails.
What are the two things that keratin does for the skin? 1. protects the skin 2. waterproofs the skin
What would happen if an individual lost their stratum basale of their skin? 1. they would dehydrate (loose fluids) 2. easy for infections to enter
Stratum Corneum The thick uppermost layer of the epidermis.
What happens to the cells in the stratum corneum as they get closer to the surface? As the cells move closer to the surface, they become flatter and flatter.
What is a calus? A think layer of cells that build up on the skin. This occurs because there is more mitosis going on.
What are blisters? When water becomes trapped between the layers of the stratum corneum.
Exfoliation The loss of cells from the surface of the skin.
Melanin The dark pigment that gives skin its color. It also helps protect the skin from the harmful rays of sunlight.
Melanocytes The cells that produce the pigment melanin.
Dermis The "true skin" that sits below the epidermis. It is the deeper part of the skin.
What type of tissue is the dermis? Fiborus Connective Tissue / Elastic Connective Tissue
How are cells in the epidermis nourished? Because there are no blood vessels in the epidermis, the cells are nourished by capillaries in the underlying dermis.
What is another name for the dermis? Cornium
What are two proteins found in the dermis? 1. Collagen 2. Elastin
Dermal Papillae Extensions of the dermis that project up into the epidermis. They contain blood vessels that supply the epidermis.
Subcutaneous Layer The layer that connects the dermis to the surface muscles.
What are two other names used for the subcutaneous layer? 1. Hypodermis 2. Superficial Fascia
What type of tissue is the subcutaneous layer? 1. Elastic / Fiborus Tissue 2. Loose tissue (Areolar & Adipose)
What does the hypodermis do? 1. It helps insulate (temperature regulator) 2. Energy is stored in fat
Sebaceous Glands Glands that are oil producing. They prevent drying out of the skin and hair.
What 3 things do sebaceous glands produce? 1. Sebum 2. Vernix Caseosa 3. Meibomian
Meibomian Glands Glands that are associated with the eyelashes and produce a secretion that lubricates the eyes.
What are blackheads composed of? They are made up of dried sebum and keratin
What happens to oil production to individuals as they are young? get older? 1. Oil production increases during youth 2. Oil production decreases during old age
Sudoriferous Glands Glands that produce sweat, and are found in the dermis and subcutaneous layers.
Eccrine Sweat glands that regulate body temperature and vent directly to the surface of the skin through a pore.
Apocrine Sweat glands that are found in the groin and axilla areas. They release their secretions through hair follicles (produce body odor).
Ceruminous Glands Glands that are located in the ear canal that produce ear wax.
Cerumen Ear wax
Ciliary Glands Glands that are found on the edges of the eyelids.
What are 3 types of modified sweat glands? 1. Ceruminous Glands 2. Ciliary Glands 3. Mammary Glands
What does sweat do? Sweat helps cool down the body. If there is too much sweat = dehydration.
Which part of the hair is living? The root (that is below the epidermis)
Which part of the hair is non-living? The shaft (that extends above the epidermis)
How does hair grow? It grows from the root, through the process of cell division called mitosis.
Arrector Pili The muscle that is attached to a hair follicle that raises the hair (goose bumps).
What are the 4 functions of the skin? 1. Protect against infection 2. Protection against dehydration 3. Regulation of body temperature 4. Collection of sensory information
When do blood vessels constrict and why? In cold conditions, which helps reduce blood flow to the surface and diminish heat loss.
When do blood vessels dilate and why? In warm conditions, which helps cool the body by bringing more blood to the surface so that heat can be dissipated.
What vitamin is needed for development and maintenance of bone tissue? Vitamin D
What is carotene? A pigment that comes from carrots and other orange and yellow vegetables. It is stored in fatty tissue and skin.
Where is carotene found? In hemoglobin, which gives blood its color.
Created by: sld975